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For quantitative analysis of the cardiac diseases, it is necessary to segment the left- ventricle (LV) in MR (Magnetic Resonance) cardiac images. Snake or active contour model has been used to segment LV boundary. However, the contour of the LV from these models may not converge to the desirable one because the contour may fall into local minimum value due to merging artifact inside of the LV. Therefore, in this paper,we propose the preprocessing method using k- means clustering and merging algorithms that can improve the performance of the active contour model. We verified that our proposed algorithm overcomes local minimum convergence problem by experiment results. · 심장 질환의 정량적 분석을 위해서 자기공명 심장 영상에서 좌심실의 경계 추출하는 것이 중요하다. Snake 또는 active contour 모델은좌심실 경계 추출을 위해서 사용되어 왔다. 그러나 이 모델을 사용하는데 있어서 좌심실의 경계선이 좌심실 내부에 생긴 결절 때문에 경계선 최소값으로 빠져서 원하는 경계선에 수렴하지 못 할 수도 있다. 그러므로 본 논문에서는 active contour 모델의 성능을 향상시킬 수 있는 k 평균군집화와 병합 알고리즘을 이용한 전처리 방법을 제안하였다. 제안된 방법으로 지역 최소값 수렴 문제를 해결함을 확인하였다.
This study was carried out to select a proper forage crop, and to estimate the proper level of application of cattle manure and carrying capacity of organic livestock per unit area. Corns and forage sorghum hybrids were cultivated with different types of livestock manures and different amount of them to produce organic forage. For both corns and forage sorghum hybrids, no fertilizer plots had significantly (p<0.05) lower annual dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) yields than those of other plots, whereas the N-P-K(nitrogen-phosphorous-kalium) plots ranked the highest yields, followed by 150% cattle manure plots and 100% cattle manure plots. DM, CP and TDN yields of in cattle manure plots were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of no fertilizer and P-K (phosphorous-kalium) plots. The yields of in cattle slurry plots tended to be a little higher than those of in composted cattle manure plots. Assuming that corn and forage sorghum hybrids produced from this trial were fed at 70% level to 450kg of Hanwoo heifer for 400g of average daily gain, the carrying capacity (head/year/ha) of livestock ranked the highest in 150% cattle slurry plots (mean 6.0 heads), followed by 100% cattle slurry plots (mean 5.3 heads), 150% composted cattle manure plots (mean 4.7 heads), 100% composted cattle manure plots (mean 4.4 heads), and no fertilizer plots (mean 2.8 heads) in corns (or the cultivation of corns). Meanwhile, in the case of forage sorghum hybrids, 150% cattle slurry plots (mean 6.4 heads) ranked the highest carrying capacity, followed by 150% composted cattle manure plots (mean 4.8 heads), 100% cattle slurry plots (mean 4.4 heads), 100% composted cattle manure plots (mean 4.1 heads), and no fertilizer plots (mean 2.8 heads). The results indicated that the application of livestock manure to cultivated soil could enhance not only DM and TDN yields, but also the carrying capacity of organic livestock as compared with the effect of chemical fertilizers. In conclusion, the production of organic forage with reutilized livestock manure will facilitate the reduction of environmental pollution and the production of environmentally friendly agricultural products by resource circulating system.
This study was conducted to determine adequate forage crop choice and optimal level of livestock manure, when different types and levels of the livestock manure were applied in corns or sorghum×sorghum hybrids for the production of organic roughages by utilizing livestock manure. For the corn, yields of annual dry matter (DM) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) were highest in N+P+K-applied treatments, showing 17.3 and 11.7 ton/ha, respectively. Treatments applied 100% composted cattle manure (8.9 and 6.1 ton/ha) and 100% cattle slurry (9.4 and 7.5 ton/ha) in contrast with chemical fertilizer-N had higher yields of DM and TDN than no fertilizer (4.8 and 2.7 ton/ha) and P+K-applied treatments (8.8 and 6.0 ton/ha). Particularly, treatments applied 150% composted cattle manure and 150% cattle slurry were markedly higher, which represented 11.4 and 7.6 ton/ha and 10.3 and 7.3 ton/ha, respectively. Crude protein (CP) contents for corns applied livestock manure ranged from 5.6 to 6.6%, which were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of no fertilizer (3.9%) and P+K-applied treatments (5.5%). ADF (42.4%) and NDF (58.3%) contents for no fertilizer treatment were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of other treatments. However, TDN contents were higher for livestock manure treatments than for no and/or chemical fertilizer treatments. In particular, TDN contents of treatments applied 150% composted cattle manure and 150% cattle slurry showed 72.3 and 70.8%, respectively and both treatments were significantly (p<0.05) higher than all of the other treatments. For the sorghum×sorghum hybrid, yields of annual DM and TDN for 100% (12.4 and 7.4 ton/ha) and 150% (13.1 and 7.6 ton/ha) cattle slurry-applied treatments, and N+P+K-applied treatments (12.6 and 7.7 ton/ha) were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of the others. In the others, 150% composted cattle manure (9.3 and 5.2 ton/ha) had higher annual DM and TDN yields than P+K-applied (8.4 and 4.8 ton/ha) and 100% composted cattle manure treatments (7.4 and 4.2 ton/ha), with no significant difference. Crude protein contents for sorghum×sorghum hybrid applied P+K and cattle slurry were 8.8 and 8.6%, respectively. CP contents for both treatments were significantly higher than those of composted manure (7.5~8.3%) and no fertilizer (4.0%) treatments, but 100% livestock manure treatments had higher CP contents than 150%-applied treatments. ADF and NDF contents for N+P+K and cattle slurry-applied treatments were significantly (p<0.05) lower than the others. However, TDN contents were highest in N+P+K and cattle slurry-applied treatments, showing 61.2 and 58.3 to 59.4%, respectively. These results indicated that application of livestock manure instead of chemical fertilizer to the soil of forage crops might not only improve yields of DM and TDN, but also reduce environmental pollution by producing organic roughages through recycling of livestock manure.
This trial was conducted to assess effects of cattle slurry application on productivity and feed values of barley and hairy vetch when they were influenced by single or mixed-sowed cultivation in paddy fields, and to obtain good quality of organic forage resources. The results summarized are as follows. For barley and hairy vetch, single-sowed cultivation was lower in annual dry matter (DM) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) yields than mixed-sowed (P
This study was conducted to assess effects of supplying different types of nitrogen sources as fertilizers on productivity and feed values of barley and rye as winter forage crops, and ultimately done to get good quality of organic forages with higher fertilization of soil. For barley, N+P+K plots were significantly (P<0.05) higher in annual dry matter (DM) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) yields than other plots. However, cattle manure plots had significantly (P<0.05) higher annual DM and TDN than P+K and non-fertilizer plots. Plots of 50%-cattle manure and mixed sowing with hairy vetch or forage pea were higher than only 50%-cattle manure plot, particularly, these were significantly higher than non-fertilizer, and their crude protein (CP) yields were much higher than other plots. Crude protein contents were significantly higher in N+P+K and 50%-cattle manure slurry plots than non-fertilizer and P+K plots, and plots of mixed sowing with hairy vetch or forage pea in application of 50%-cattle manure had higher CP content than other plots. ADF content was lowest in 50%-cattle manure+forage pea plots, but highest in 100%-cattle manure plots. NDF content was lowest in legumes-mixed sowing, but highest in 100%-cattle manure plots. TDN content was the highest in forage pea plots, and plots of 50%-cattle manure and legumes-mixed sowing had high RFV, but cattle manure plots rich in ADF and NDF content had the lowest TDN and RFV. For rye, plots of 50%-cattle manure+hairy vetch mixed sowing, and N+P+K application had significantly higher annual DM, CP and TDN than other plots except for cattle manure. DM productive efficiency to nitrogen fertilization was markedly higher for cattle manure plots than for chemical fertilizer. This tendency was more conspicuous in plots of 50% cattle manure+legumes-mixed sowing. CP content was higher for N+P+K plot than for all plots, and plots of 50%-cattle manure + legumes-mixed sowing were significantly higher than other plots. On the contrary, forage pea-mixed sowing plot had the lowest ADF and NDF, but TDN and RFV were significantly (P<0.05) higher than other plots. Grass crop cultivation together with legumes by applying livestock manure to soil may lead to higher palatability of livestock, and better quality of forage. Furthermore, cattle manure application increased production yield per ha and CP contents. Thus, when applying forage crops produced by cattle manure application and mixed sowing to organic livestock production, it was conceived that forages produced might become a substitute for foreign organic grain as protein sources.
The objective of present experiment was to examine the impact of different organic nitrogen (N) fertilizer application rates and different harvesting periods on the forage yield and feed value of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.). This study was carried out from May to September 2019, the amount of 80 kg of kenaf seed/ha were applied with different rates of nitrogen fertilizer. The plants were sampled at 10 days intervals (100, 110, 120, and 130 days after seeding) from different harvesting dates. In the organic fertilizer treatments, the highest dry matter (DM) yield was observed in the application rate at 250 kg of N/ha. Crude protein (CP) content in leaves was similar between the organic fertilizer rates at 200 and 250 kg of N/ha and were higher compared with other fertilizer treatments. The highest CP content in the stem was 4.3% in the organic fertilizer application rates st 250 kg of N/ha. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in leaves showed no significant difference between the chemical fertilizer rates at 200 and 250 kg of N/ha, and the organic fertilizer rates at 150 and 250 kg of N/ha. In addition, DM yield of kenaf was highest in the harvest of 100 days after seeding, and tended to decreased significantly with increase of harvesting periods (p<0.05). As the growth progressed, the plant height and stem ratio increased but the leaves ratio decreased significantly (p<0.05) and the highest was found at 110 days after seeding. The highest CP, Acid detergent fiber (ADF), NDF and total digestible nutrient (TDN) contents in leaves were 13.9, 25.4, 40.5 and 71.1%, respectively that were affected by different harvesting periods. Also, the ADF and NDF in stem increased significantly with increase of kenaf maturity (p<0.05). In conclusion, the optimal organic fertilizer application rates and the proper harvesting periods for the forage yield and quality of kenaf were at 200 to 250 kg of N/ha, and 100 to 110 days after seeding, respectively.
무기태(無機態) 질소시비(窒素施肥)가 초지의 수량과 식생구성에 미치는 영향 : V. 무기태질소 추가 혹은 추가가 없는 액상구비시용(液狀廐肥施用)이 초지의 식생구성에 미치는 영향 V. The effect of fertilizing liquid manure with or without mineral nitrogen on botanical compositions of grassland
本 實驗은 無機態窒素의 追加 혹은 追加가 없는 液狀廐肥 施用이 草地의 植生構成에 미치는 影響을 究明코저 "오스트리아 알프스농업을 위한 聯邦硏究所 Gumpenstein 산하 實驗圃場(Admont와 Piber지역)"에서 1987-1988년까지 실시되었다. 그 結果를 要約하면 다음과 같다 : 1. 無機態室素의 追加 혹은 追加가 없는 液狀廐肥의 施用은 上, 中繁 禾本科牧草(특히 Dactylis glomerata와 Agropyron repens)의 植生比率을 增加시켰다. 2. 液狀廐肥의 混用으로 下繁 禾本科牧草(특히 Poa pratensis)역시 현저한 增加를 나타냈다. 3. 無機態室素의 增施는 콩과牧準의 低下를 가져오는 반면에, 液狀廐肥에서는 높은 Trifolium repens의 植生比率을 維持하였다. 4. 窒素 施肥水準 增加에 따라 長草型 山野草 및 雜草는 增加하였지만, 無機態 室素施肥區에 비해 液狀廐肥 混用區에서는 현저한 短草型 山野草 및 雜草의 減少를 가져왔다. This experiment was conducted to study the effect of fertilizing liquid manure with or without mineral nitrogen on botanical compositions of grassland at the "Federal Institue for Agriculture in the Alps(Admont and Piber location)" in Austria. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. The botanical compositions of tall and medium grasses such as Dactylis glomerata and Agropyron repens were increased by liquid manure application with or without mineral nitrogen fertilizer. 2. Liquid manure application also showed higher botanical compositions of bottom grasses such as Poa pratensis. 3. Leaf cover of legumes, especially Triflium repens was decreased on higher amounts of mineral nitrogen fertilized areas, but was increased on liquid manure application areas. 4. While fertilizing higher levels of mineral nitrogen resulted in more appearance of tall herbs, appling liquid manure with or without mineral nitrogen fertilizer resulted in less appearance of bottom herbs than appling mineral nitrogen alone.