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Background : The fragile histidine triad(FHIT) gene, located at human chromosome 3p14.2, has been shown to produce aberrant transcripts in a number of human cancers. Also, FHIT protein is supposed to have tumor suppressor function. Methods : To determine the role of the FHIT gene in gastric carcinoma, FHIT mRNA transcripts were examined in 16 primary adenocarcinomas by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR). Expression of FHIT protein was measured by immunohistochemistry. Results : In this study, we found normal and abnormal RT-PCR products in 7 cases, and no transcript in one case. Positive immunostaining was observed in normal gastic gland, whereas FHIT immunoreactivity was significantly decreased or absent in most cases tested. Gastric cancer is thought to be develop from carcinogenic exposure, possibly accompanying with the high frequency of the FHIT gene abnormalities. Conclusion : The above results suggest that the FHIT gene can be a preferential target of environmental carcinogens, and the FHIT inactivation may play a role in the gastric carcinogenicity.
조이현,윤명수,손찬희,조태훈,김동해,서일원,노준형,전부일,김인태,최은하,조광섭,권기청,Cho,,I,Hyun,Yun,,Myung,Soo,Son,,Chan,Hee,Jo,,Tae,Hoon,Kim,,Dong,Hea,Seo,,Il,Won,Rho,,Jun,Hyoung,Jeon,,Bu,Il,Kim,,In,Tae,Choi,,Eun,Ha,Cho,,Guangsup,Kwon, 한국진공학회 2013 Applied Science and Convergence Technology Vol.22 No.5
태양전지 제조공정에서 열처리로 레이저를 사용하는 도핑공정은 태양전지의 성능을 결정짓는 중요한 요소이다. 그러나 퍼니스를 이용하는 공정에서는 선택적으로 고농도(Heavy) 도핑영역을 형성하기가 어렵다. 레이저를 사용한 선택적 도핑의 경우 고가의 레이저 장비가 요구되어지며, 레이저 도핑 후 고온의 에너지로 인한 웨이퍼의 구조적 손상 문제가 발생된다. 본 연구는 저가이면서 코로나 방전 구조의 대기압 플라즈마 소스를 제작하였고, 이를 통한 선택적 도핑에 관한 연구를 하였다. 대기압 플라즈마 제트는 Ar 가스를 주입하여 수십 kHz 주파수를 인가하여 플라즈마를 발생시키는 구조로 제작하였다. P-type 웨이퍼(Cz)에 인(P)이 shallow 도핑 된(120 Ohm/square) PSG (Phosphorus Silicate Glass)가 제거되지 않은 웨이퍼를 사용하였다. 대기압 플라즈마 도핑 공정 처리시간은 15 s와 30 s이며, 플라즈마 전류는 40 mA와 70 mA로 처리하였다. 웨이퍼의 도핑프로파일은 SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy)측정을 통하여 분석하였으며, 도핑프로파일로 전기적 특성인 면저항(sheet resistance)을 파악하였다. 도펀트로 사용된 PSG에 대기압 플라즈마 제트로 도핑공정을 처리한 결과 전류와 플라즈마 처리시간이 증가됨에 따라 도핑깊이가 깊어지고, 면저항이 향상하였다. 대기압 플라즈마 도핑 후 웨이퍼의 표면구조 손상파악을 위한 SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) 측정결과 도핑 전과 후 웨이퍼의 표면구조는 차이가 없음을 확인하였으며, 대기압 플라즈마 도핑 폭도 전류와 플라즈마 처리시간이 증가됨에 따라 증가하였다. Doping process using laser is an important process in fabrication of solar cell for heat treatment. However, the process of using the furnace is difficult to form a selective emitter doping region. The case of using a selective emitter laser doping is required an expensive laser equipment and induce the wafer's structure damage due to high temperature. This study, we fabricated a new costly plasma source. Through this, we research the selective emitter doping. We fabricated that the atmospheric pressure plasma jet injected Ar gas is inputted a low frequency (a few tens kHz). We used shallow doping wafers existing PSG (Phosphorus Silicate Glass) on the shallow doping CZ P-type wafer. Atmospheric plasma treatment time was 15 s and 30 s, and current for making the plasma is 40 mA and 70 mA. We investigated a doping profile by using SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy) and we grasp the sheet resistance of electrical character by using doping profile. As result of experiment, prolonged doping process time and highly plasma current occur a deeper doping depth, moreover improve sheet resistance. We grasped the wafer's surface damage after atmospheric pressure plasma doping by using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy). We check that wafer's surface is not changed after plasma doping and atmospheric pressure doping width is broaden by increase of plasma treatment time and current.
Objectives : The 7-zone-diagnostic system is a diagnostic device to predetermine bodily locations by measuring the energy of body. This study was to investigate the relation between the different patterns of Zone 1, 2, 3 of Factor AA in CP-6000A (VEGA, Germany), 7-zone-diagnostic system and clinical parameters. The purpose of this study was relation Korean traditional medicine and western medicine with the data from 7-zone-diagnostic system and the clinical parameters. Methods : This study was carried out with the data from some clinical parameters. We made three groups according to the Factor AA patterns of CP-6000A. The Factor AA pattern of Group A is that the red bar graph of zone 1, 2, 3 were higher than the normal range and the others were the normal range. The Factor AA pattern of Group B was that the red bar graph of zone 1, 2, 3 was the normal range and the others were the normal range. The Factor AA pattern of Group C was that the red bar graph of zone 1, 2, 3 was lower than the normal range and the others were the normal range. After the data from clinical parameters to correspond with conditions of each group were selected, the data from clinical parameters among each groups analyzed statistically. Results : The values of GOT, GPT, r-GPT, Triglyceride, BUN, Uric acid of group A was higher than group C. Gastroscope of group A and B was higher than group C. Conclusions : It is thought that the red bar graph of zone 1, 2, 3 is higher, the group has the higher energy and the energy has a character of fire(熱). Those patterns have a high risk of hyperlipermia and liver, stomach disease.
Objectives : The 7-zone-diagnostic system is a diagnostic device to predetermine bodily locations by measuring the energy of body. This study was to investigate the relation between the different patterns of Zone 2 of Factor AA in CP-6000A (VEGA, Germany), 7-zone-diagnostic system and the factors of Bell's Palsy. Methods : This study was carried out with the data from factors of Bell's Palsy(age, sex, period after onset, postauricular pain, season which the disease happen, contributing factor). We made three groups according to the different patterns of Zone 2 of Factor AA in CP-6000A. The Factor AA pattern of Group A is that the red bar graph of zone 2 were lower than the normal range. The Factor AA pattern of Group B was that the red bar graph of zone 2 was the normal range. The Factor AA pattern of Group C was that the red bar graph of zone 2 was higher than the normal range. After collecting the data about factors of Bel's Palsy to correspond with conditions of each group were selected, the data was analyzed statistically. Results : The values of number of patient and period after onset of group A was higher than group B and C. The values of ratio of postauricular pain of group B and C was higher than group A. The season of disease happened of group A is spring and winter, group B is winter and group C is summer and autumn. The contributing factor of disease happened of group A is none, and group B and C is stress and clod. Conclusions : In Bell's Palsy, it is thought that the red bar graph of zone 2 is lower, the group have lower energy(虛) and the energy has a character of cold(寒), and zone 2 is higher, the group has the higher energy(實) and the energy has a character of fire(熱).
We study the properties of (001) surface of ternary vanadium compounds based on the rock salt semiconductor GeTe. In one of the compound 25% of Ge atoms are substituted by V atoms, and in another the substitution is as large as 50%. Using a first-principles method, we calculate the electronic structure of the two systems for two different surface terminations. The sudied systems are found to be half-metallic ferromagnets. The half-metallic gap in every system is found to be larger than in the bulk. However, in Ge-terminated surfaces the bottom of the conduction band is very near the Fermi level and this may cause unstability of the half-metallicity in the systems. VGe-terminated surfaces are characterized by a more stable half-metallic ferromagnetic order. The larger amount of substitution of Ge atoms by V atoms also supresses magnetic properties of the system. The largest calculated magnetic moment on V atom at the topmost layer of the (001) surface is 2.602 $\mu_B$. The presence of the magnetic center causes polarization of the metalloids: in the 50\% substituted GeTe, Te atoms are negatively polarized and Ge atoms are slightly positively polarized. The largest magnetic moment on Te is calculated for Te atom at the topmost layer and it is -0.107 μ<sub>B</sub>.