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        • KCI등재

          사유림소유자의 임업지식수준에 영향을 미치는 사회경제적 제요인의 분석

          조응혁,구삼회 한국임학회 1984 한국산림과학회지 Vol.66 No.1

          The study was carried out to investigate the relationship of certain socio-economic factors to the private owners' knowledge of forestry practices. The dependent variable was knowledge level in forestry, and the six independent variables were owners' age, educational level, forestland area, socio-economic status, communication and socio-psychological factors. For the study the data were collected by interviewing 258 private forest owners, and analized primarily by multiple correlation statistical technique. The sampled private owners were grouped into two categories: the common owners and model owners. 1) The average score of forestry knowledge of common owners was lower than that of model owners, and the difference was about 15 scores. The scores of other independent variables such as age, educational level, forestland area, socio-economic status, communication and socio-psychological factors of common owners were also significantly lower than those of model owners. 2) The common owners' knowledge of forestry practice were positively correlated with educational level, socio-psychological and communication variables. On the other hand, the model owners' were negatively correlated with the educational level, but positively with the socio-economic status and the socio-psychological variables. 3) The multiple correlation coefficient between the common owners' knowledge scores and six independent variables was 0.5667. About 31.46 percent of the variance of this knowledge could be explained by the communication variable, and other 1.42 percent by the socio-psychological factor. In the case of model owners, the multiple correlation was 0.5332, and about 16.62 percent of the variance of the knowledge could be explained by the communication variable, and ls.y percent by the socio-psychological factor. 4) The opportunity of communication contact through the mass media, personal communication and owner's social participation should be augmented for the effective forestry extension works, because it is one of the results of the study that the private forest owners' knowledge in forestry was greatly affected by communication variable.

        • KCI등재

          독림가(篤林家)의 목벌채의식(林木伐採意識)과 연관변수

          조응혁 한국임학회 1983 한국산림과학회지 Vol.60 No.1

          Total 83model forest owners in Korea were investigated to find out the relationship between their attitudes toward tree felling (or propensity to felling) and selected six independent variables, i.e, owner's age(X1), educational level(X2), forest land area (X3), socioeconomic status (X4), communication (X5) and sociopsychological factor(X6). The dependent variable was measured by Liken attitude scale, and analyzed by multiple regression. Major findings of the study are summarized as follows: 1) The degree of the propensity of felling is relatively high. The communication and sociopsychological variables are negatively, but education level is positively related to the dependent variable. 2) The multiple correlation coefficient between fellingattitude score and six independent variables is 0.5322. Of the variance of this sttitude score, about 13 percent can be explained by communication variable, 6 percent by sociopsychological variable and other 6 percent by age variable. 3) The model owners' attitudes toward felling are positively correlated with there sources of communication variable, i.e. personal contact, social participation and mass media contact. The multiple correlation coefficient between felling-attitude score and three sources of communication variable is 0.4049. This means that 16 percent of the variance of the attitude score can be explained by three sources of communication, that is, 9 percent by personal contact, 5 percent by social participation and 3 percent by mass media. 4) The fatalistic:, untrustful and non-ambitious personalities were positively, but conservative personality negatively related to the propensity to tree felling. The multiple correlation coefficient between seven different personalities and the dependent variable is 0.5461. Of the variance of the dependent variable, 11 percent can be explained by untrustful personality, and other 11 percent by nonambitious personality.

        • KCI등재

          경제적성숙기 결정을 위한 벌기령(伐期令)모델의 비교연구

          조응혁 한국임학회 1976 한국산림과학회지 Vol.32 No.1

          Financial rotations of Pinus koraiensis stands are calculated and compared on the basis of five basic financial maturity concepts. The rotations given by the forest rent and average annual gross revenue models are in excess of sixty years by adopting zero interest rates of capital and forest lands. IRR model also neglects land value and highly sensitive to the changes of fixed and regeneration costs. The Faustmann doctrine recommands rotation ages of 23-39 years depend upon applied interest rates and site indices, and seems to be most adequate for determining financial maturity. It is however the situation in Korea that economic conditions are changing rapidly, and thus a model which does not require many exogenous variables in calculation process is preferable. The Duerr's solution has a basic simplicity and logic which is appealing from both a theoritical and practical viewpoint, and most adaptable to the Korean situation, even though the model completly neglects the opportunity cost for forest land. There is a tendency to reduce rotation length with the increase of site quality, but the difference is negligible.

        • KCI등재

          수간석해(樹幹析解)의 전산화 프로그램 개발

          조응혁 한국임학회 1985 한국산림과학회지 Vol.69 No.1

          A computer program for stem analysis has been prepared by using BASIC language. Annual-ring counts and. other input data can be directly entered for necessary calculation, and outputs are data lists, cross-section areas, age-height relationships, growth rates, total, annual, and mean increments of height, D.B.H. and volume for an individual tree. The sectional log volumes are calculated by Huber's formula, and the growth rates by Pressler's in this program. A copy of the program listing is in appendix I.

        • KCI등재

          양봉농가의 경영실태 및 적정규모설정

          조응혁,곽경호 한국임학회 1993 한국산림과학회지 Vol.82 No.4

          This study was conducted to obtain necessary information to improve beekeeping farmhouses management and to establish related problem. Using data obtained from 50 beekeeping farmhouses in Korea, current status of management and optimum sales scale were analysed. The results of the study are summarized as follows ; 1. Managers of beekeeping farmhouses are relatively old(64% of them is over 50 years old) and highly educated and experienced(76% of them is in the business more than 10 years) . 2. Only a portion of managers(38%) considers beekeeping as a major job, while the rest(62%) involves as a side job working with other agricultural business. 3. Major supply of labor force comes from family group. Total input of family labor is 6.4 months a year. Fourty-four percent of management units is migrating and 56% of them is settled in specific locations. 4. In 1991, the average number of conventional beehive casks per farmhouse is decreased by 2.94 casks but improved-type beehive casks is increased by 1.79 casks. Total number of beehive casks per farmhouse is increased by 12.66 casks during the year. 5. Major cost items of beekeeping farmhouses include bee colony aquisition cost, feeding cost, depreciation cost, wages in an order. The average yearly profit rate of farmhouses is about 29.4%. 6. The break-even point of honey sales is about 3 million won. The optimum sales scale was 52.2ℓ, then average production cost was estimated 53,800Won.

        • KCI등재

          제재생산성(製材生産性)과 적정생산요소투입량 계측

          조응혁 한국임학회 1976 한국산림과학회지 Vol.32 No.1

          In order to estimate sawmill productivities, rates of technical change and optimum combination of production factors, Cobb-Douglas production functions have been derived using data obtained from 96 sample mills in Busan-Incheon, southwestern and northeastern areas. The results may be summarized as follows: 1. There is a tendency of expanding average sawmill size in the areas. The horse-power holdings per mill have been increased at the rates of 91 percent in Busan-Incheon, 7.7 percent in southwestern and 16.9 percent in northeastern areas. This implies that the mills around log-importing ports have made rapid development, compared with those in forest regions. 2. The regression coefficients (production elasticities) of the functions for the year of 1967 in the above three areas are much similar each other, but significant differencies are found in the production functions of 1975. In other words, sawmill productivity was mainly restricted by capital deficiencies in all areas in 1967, but this situation was succeeded only by N-E area in 1975. The range of sum of regression coefficients is 1.0437-1.4214, this indicates increasing rates of return to scale. 3. The annual rates of technical changes in B-I, S-W and N-E areas for the observed period are 17.6, 7.6 and 2.2 percents respectively. Busan-Incheon is the only area where labor productivity is higher than that of capital. 4. The best combination of production factors for maximizing firm's profit is subject to the changes of input and output prices. With some assumptions of prices and costs, the optimum levels of power and labor input in B-I, S-W and N-E areas are 57:17, 427:94 and 192:27.

        • KCI등재

          계룡산 국립공원의 레크리에이션 이용특성 및 이용객 예측에 관한 연구

          조응혁,성인경 한국임학회 1988 한국산림과학회지 Vol.77 No.3

          This study was analyzed the behavior of recreational use through interviewing visitors with the questionnaire (1986.11-1987.9) in Mt. Kyeryong National Park. The number of visitors have been forecasted by tune series data of the past number of visitors, population, GNP, and number of cars (1974-1986) in korea. The results of the study can be summarized as follows 1) Visitor's subjective evaluation about recreational environment evaluated to be fair in Mt. Kyeryong National Park. 2) They preferred natural forest resources to historic remains, tourist facility, etc.. 3) Number of participation was mostly once or five times over. 4) Visitors were affirmative to re-visit to the Mt. Kyeryong National Park. 5) Most of visitors stay for one day. 6) The most suitable estimated user regression model was : Y=-5753.7350+0.1726 Pop. -0.6564 NO. of Car. According to this equation, the total number of visitors will he increased by 3% per year from 1,023 thousands people in 1987 to 1.698 thousands in 2000.

        • KCI등재

          사유림소유자(私有林所有者)의 시업의식(施業意識)에 영향(影響)을 미치는 제요인(諸要因)의 분석(分析)

          조응혁,Cho, Eung Hyouk 충남대학교 농업과학연구소 1982 Korean Journal of Agricultural Science Vol.9 No.1

          본연구(本硏究)는 우리나라 사유림소유자(私有林所有者)의 산림시업의식(山林施業意識)과 이에 영향(影響)을 미치는 제요인(諸要因)과의 관계(關係)를 개별적(個別的) 또는 종합적(綜合的)으로 구명(究明)하여, 임업기술지도(林業技術指導) 및 사유림시책입안(私有林施策立案)에 필요(必要)한 기초자료(基礎資料)를 제시(提示)하는데 목적(目的)을 두고 수행(修行)하였으며, 연구자료(硏究資料)는 81, 11~82, 1월(月) 사이에 179명(名)의 일반산주(一般山主)와 83명(名)의 독림가(篤林家)를 대상(對象)으로 조사(調査)하였다. 종속변수(從屬變數)로서의 산림시업의식(山林施業意識)은 Likert 형척도(型尺度)에 의하여 평점(評點)하였으며, 독립변수(獨立變數)는 연령(年令), 교육수준(敎育水準), 임야면적(林野面積), 사회경제적지위(社會經濟的地位), 전달매개수단(傳達媒介手段), 사회심리(社會心理)의 6개요인(個要因)으로서 변수간(變數間)의 상호연관성(相互聯關性)을 일반산주(一般山主), 독림가별(篤林家別)로 비교분석(比較分析) 하였다. 지금까지의 연구결과(硏究結果)를 요약(要約)하면 다음과 같다. 1. 산림시업의식(山林施業意識)의 평균점수(平均點數)는 일반산주(一般山主)가 독림가(篤林家)보다 2점(點)정도 낮았으며, 그 차이(差異)는 유의적(有意的)이었다. 한편, 독립변수(獨立變數)로서의 산주연령(山主年令), 임야면적(林野面積), 사회경제적지위(社會經濟的地位) 및 전달매개변수(傳達媒介變數)의 평균점수(平均點數)도 일반산주(一般山主)가 낮았으나, 사회심리변수(社會心理變數)만은 두 산주집단(山主集團)사이에 유의차(有意差)가 없었다. 2. 일반산주(一般山主의 산림시업의식(山林施業意識)은 연령변수(年令變數)와 매우 유의적(有意的)인 부(負)의 상관(相關)을 이루고 있었으며, 그 밖의 독립변수(獨立變數)와는 정(正)의 상관(相關)을 나타내었다. 반면(反面)에 독림가(篤林家)의 시업의식(施業意識)은 교육수준변수(敎育水準變數)와 유의적(有意的)적인 부(負)의 상관(相關)을 이루고 있었으며, 연령(年令), 전달매개(傳達媒介) 및 사회심리변수(社會心理變數)와는 정(正)의 상관(相關)을 보였다. 3. 산림시업의식(山林施業意識)과 6개독립변수간(個獨立變數間)의 중상관계수(重相關係數)는 일반산주(一般山主)가 0.6971, 독림가(篤林家)가 0.5207 로서 매우 유의적(有意的)이었다. 시업의식변량(施業意識變量)에 대한 독립변수(獨立變數)의 상대적(相對的) 영향력(影響力)은 일반산주(一般山主)의 경우 사회심리변수(社會心理變數)에 의하여 41.0%가 설명(說明)되고, 독림가(篤林家)의 경우는 사회심리변수(社會心理變數)에 의하여 16.2%, 연령변수(年令變數)에 의하여 6.0%가 설명(說明)되는 것으로 나타났다. 4. 전체산주(全體山主)의 시업의식(施業意識)에 대한 7가지 사회심리성격(社會心理性格)의 중상관계수(重相關係數)는 0.6566으로서 매우 유의적(有意的)이었으며, 이러한 7가지 성격요인(性格要因)은 통합적(統合的)으로 종속변량(從屬變量)을 43.1% 설명(說明)할 수 있다. 그리고, 이 43.1%는 다시 무의욕적성격(無意慾的性格)에 의하여 15% 전통적가정관(傳統的家庭觀)에 의하여 11.2%가 설명(說明)되는 것으로 나타났다. 5. 결국(結局) 우리나라 사유림소유자(私有林所有者)의 산림시업의식(山林施業意識)은 대부분(大部分) 경제적요인(經濟的要因) 보다는 심리적(心理的)인 요인(要因)에 의하여 결정(決定)되므로 The study has been carried out to investigate the relationship of certain factors to the private owners' attitudes toward forest management. The dependent variable is the attitude toward forest management, and the six independent variables are owner's age, educational level, forestland area, socioeconomic status, communicational and sociopsychological factors. The dependent variables were measured by Likert attitude scale. The data used in the study were obtained from 262 common-and model-forest owners, and analyzed primarily by multiple correlation statistical technique. Major findings of the study are summarized as follows; 1. The average score of common-owners' attitudes toward forest management is significantly lower than that of model-owners'. The scores of such independent variables as age, forestland area, socioeconomic status and communication of common-owners are also significantly lower than those of model-owners', while the significant difference of sociopsychological scores is not recognized between two owner groups. 2. The common-owners' attitudes toward forest management are negatively correlated with age variable, arid positively with other independent variables. On the other hand, the model-owners' are negatively correlated with education variable, arid positively with age, communicational and sociopsychological factors. 3. The multiple correlation coefficient between common-owner' management-attitude scores and six independent variables is 0.6971. About 41 percent of the variance of this attitude cart be explained by sociopsychological factor, and other 7 percent by communicational variable. In case of model-owners, the multiple correlation coefficient is 0.5207, and about 16.2 percent of the variance of the attitude can be explained by sociopsychological factor and 6 percent by age variable. 4. The multiple correlation coefficient between the attitude scores of all-owners arid such seven different personality factors as fatalistic, trustful, cooperative, ambitious, conservative, scientific and traditional familism personalities is 0.6566. In this case, 15 percent of the variance of the management-attitude can be explained by ambitious personality, and 11.2 percent by traditional familism. 5. The private forest owners' attitudes toward forest management are greatly affected by sociopsychological and communicational factors. The emphasis should be therefore put on the forestry extension works to induce private owners to management practices.

        • KCI등재

          목재가격의 경향변동(傾向變動)과 계절변동 분석

          조응혁 한국임학회 1977 한국산림과학회지 Vol.36 No.1

          The secular trends and seasonal variation of the prices of imported lauan sawtimber, domestic red pine logs and sawtimber have been analyzed to find out the features and origins of price fluctuation in Korea for the period of 1961∼1971. The results may be summarized as follows: 1. The relative prices of red pine logs were raised by 1.23 percent per year, and those of red pine and lauan sawtimber were decreased by 0.10 and 0.93 percent, respectively through the period. As a whole, there is a tendency in the country that timber prices were gradually decreased by lowing timber demand through savings in consumption and exploitation of alternative materials, with the increased supply through continuous log import. 2. There is also a tendency that the seasonal variation reduced in the last 15 years. In the period of 1961∼1968, the seasonal price indices were peaked in spring and autumn, but thereafter peaked in spring and dropped down until winter. 3. In secular and seasonal variations of timber prices, the trend of sawtimber prices was dependent upon that of log prices' but the fluctuation was larger in log prices.

        • KCI등재

          시스템분석(分析)에 의(依)한 삼림수확조절(森林收穫調節)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究)

          조응혁,Cho, Eung-hyouk 충남대학교 농업과학연구소 1977 Korean Journal of Agricultural Science Vol.4 No.2

          The purpose of this paper was to schedule optimum cutting strategy which could maximize the total yield under certain restrictions on periodic timber removals and harvest areas from an industrial forest, based on a linear programming technique. Sensitivity of the regulation model to variations in restrictions has also been analyzed to get information on the changes of total yield in the planning period. The regulation procedure has been made on the experimental forest of the Agricultural College of Seoul National University. The forest is composed of 219 cutting units, and characterized by younger age group which is very common in Korea. The planning period is devided into 10 cutting periods of five years each, and cutting is permissible only on the stands of age groups 5-9. It is also assumed in the study that the subsequent forests are established immediately after cutting existing forests, non-stocked forest lands are planted in first cutting period, and established forests are fully stocked until next harvest. All feasible cutting regimes have been defined to each unit depending on their age groups. Total yield (Vi, k) of each regime expected in the planning period has been projected using stand yield tables and forest inventory data, and the regime which gives highest Vi, k has been selected as a optimum cutting regime. After calculating periodic yields and cutting areas, and total yield from the optimum regimes selected without any restrictions, the upper and lower limits of periodic yields(Vj-max, Vj-min) and those of periodic cutting areas (Aj-max, Aj-min) have been decided. The optimum regimes under such restrictions have been selected by linear programming. The results of the study may be summarized as follows:- 1. The fluctuations of periodic harvest yields and areas under cutting regimes selected without restrictions were very great, because of irregular composition of age classes and growing stocks of existing stands. About 68.8 percent of total yield is expected in period 10, while none of yield in periods 6 and 7. 2. After inspection of the above solution, restricted optimum cutting regimes were obtained under the restrictions of Amin=150 ha, Amax=400ha, $Vmin=5,000m^3$ and $Vmax=50,000m^3$, using LP regulation model. As a result, about $50,000m^3$ of stable harvest yield per period and a relatively balanced age group distribution is expected from period 5. In this case, the loss in total yield was about 29 percent of that of unrestricted regimes. 3. Thinning schedule could be easily treated by the model presented in the study, and the thinnings made it possible to select optimum regimes which might be effective for smoothing the wood flows, not to speak of increasing total yield in the planning period. 4. It was known that the stronger the restrictions becomes in the optimum solution the earlier the period comes in which balanced harvest yields and age group distribution can be formed. There was also a tendency in this particular case that the periodic yields were strongly affected by constraints, and the fluctuations of harvest areas depended upon the amount of periodic yields. 5. Because the total yield was decreased at the increasing rate with imposing stronger restrictions, the Joss would be very great where strict sustained yield and normal age group distribution are required in the earlier periods. 6. Total yield under the same restrictions in a period was increased by lowering the felling age and extending the range of cutting age groups. Therefore, it seemed to be advantageous for producing maximum timber yield to adopt wider range of cutting age groups with the lower limit at which the smallest utilization size of timber could be produced. 7. The LP regulation model presented in the study seemed to be useful in the Korean situation from the following point of view: (1) The model can provide forest managers with the solution of where, when, and how much to cut in order t 본(本) 연구(硏究)는 계획기간내(計劃期間內)의 재적수확량(材積收穫量)을 최대화(最大化)하고 각분기(各分期)의 수확량(收穫量)과 수확면적(收穫面積)을 일정(一定) 범위(範圍)로 제약(制約)하여 계획기간내(計劃期間內)의 보속수확(保續收穫)을 도모(圖謀)하는 동시(同時)에 후계림(後繼林)의 법정영급배치(法正令級配置)가 유도(誘導)될 수 있는 적정수확안(適正收穫案)을 선형계획법(線型計劃法)에 의하여 선정(選定)하고, 제약량(制約量)의 변화(變化)가 총수확량(總收穫量) 및 분기별(分期別) 수확량(收穫量)과 수확면적(收穫面積)에 미치는 영향(影響)을 구명(究明)하는데 목적(目的)이 있다. 서울 대학교(大學校) 농과대학(農科大學) 부속연습림중(附屬演習林中) 개벌작업급(皆伐作業級)에 속하는 219개(個) 소반(小班)을 대상(對象)으로 하였으며, 이 삼림(森林)은 영급구성면(令級構成面)에서 볼 때 유영급(幼令級) 임분(林分)이 많다는 점(點)에서 전국(全國) 삼림(森林)을 대표(代表)한다고 할 수 있다. 본(本) 연구(硏究)에서는 한 분기년수(分期年數)를 5년(年), 계획기간(計劃期間)을 10분기(分期), 1영급(令級)을 5영개(令皆)로 하였으며, 벌채영급(伐採令級)의 범위(範圍)는 5~9영급(令級)이다. 한편, 후계림(後繼林)은 현실림(現實林)이 수확(收穫)되는 즉시 조림(造林)되고, 미립목지(未立木地)는 1분기내(分期內)에 조림(造林)되며 다음 벌기(伐期)까지 충분(充分)한 입목도(立木度)가 이루어지는 것으로 전제(前提)하였다. 소반(小班)을 벌구(伐區)로 하여, 각벌구(各伐區)가 계획기간내(計劃期間內)에 벌채(伐採)될 수 있는 모든 가능(可能)한 대체수확안(代替收穫案)을 그의 영급(令級)에 따라 작성(作成)하고, 여기에 현실림(現實林)과 후계림(後繼林)의 벌기예상수확량(伐期豫想收穫量)을 대입(代入)하여 각대체안(各代替案)의 계획(計劃) 기간내(期間內) 수확량(收穫量)($V_{i,\;k}$)을 산정(算定)하였다. 이때 각벌구(各伐區)의 벌기예상수확량(伐期豫想收穫量)은 기존(旣存) 임분수확표(林分收穫表)와 산림조사부(山林調査簿) 자료(資料)를 이용(利用)하는 범위내(範圍內)에서 추정(推定)하였으며, 각벌구(各伐區)에 소속(所屬)되는 대체수확안중(代替收穫案中)에서 $V_{i,\;k}$가 가장 큰 수확안(收穫案)을 적정수확안(適正收穫案)으로 선정(選定)하였다. 우선 제약조건(制約條件)이 없을 때의 적정수확안(適正收穫案)을 선정(選定)하여 분기별(分期別) 수확량(收穫量)과 수확면적(收穫面積), 총수확량(總收穫量)을 계산(計算)한 다음, 이를 기준(基準)으로 하여 분기별(分期別) 수확량(收穫量)의 상한(上限)($V_{j-max}$)과 하한(下限)($V_{j-min}$) 및 수확면적(收穫面積)의 상한(上限)($A_{j-max}$)과 하한(下限)($A_{j-min}$)을 결정(決定)하였다. 이러한 여러가지 제약조건하(制約條件下)의 적정수확안(適正收穫案)은 LP수확조절(收穫調節)모델을 유도(誘導)하여 선정(選定)하였으며, 제약조건(制約條件) 및 벌채영급범위(伐採令級範圍)의 변화(變化)가 총수확량(總收穫量)에 미치는 영향(影響)을 분석(分析)하고자 감응도분석(感應度分析)을 실시(實施)하였다. 본(本) 연구(硏究) 결과(結果)를 요약(要約)하면 다음과 같다. 1. 제약조건(制約條件) 없이 적정수확안(適正收穫案)을 선정(選定)한 결과(結果), 수확면적(收穫面積)이 분기별(分期別)로 큰 차이(差異)를 보였다. 즉, 총수확량(總收穫

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