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In a mercury leaching test for waste using the Korean Standard Method (ES 06404.1), the pre-treatment process of an eluate is very complicated with a high possibility of contamination and low mercury recovery rate. It is also difficult to analyze multiple samples in a short time and the process generates experimental wastes. Accordingly, a direct mercury analyzer (DMA) applying thermal decomposition gold-amalgamation analysis has been recently used. The method shows a relatively high recovery rate for solid samples without complicated pre-treatment and it can be applied to both liquid and solid samples as the EPA method 7473 does. In order to use the auto-sampler in DMA for analyzing many elution samples from waste, this study checked recovery rates depending on acid solutions and additives during continuous analysis. The result showed a significant drop in recovery and precision except for an L-cysteine added sample. Considering commonly used acid-treatment of wastes, three types of acid solutions (nitrate, hydrochloric acid and sulfate) were chosen for analysis, and precision and accuracy were relatively high in nitric acid solution. It has been determined that accuracy and precision improved when 0.01% L-cysteine was added as an additive and this reduced the impact of continuous measurement. Therefore, during analysis of liquid samples or eluted samples using DMA continuously, introducing suitable additives is necessary depending on pre-treatment method in order to improve accuracy and precision in the analysis of mercury.
Recently, the explosion of powder fire extinguisher led to the replacement of old extinguishers with new ones in Korea. As a result, the amount of waste fire extinguishing agents from discarded fire extinguishers has been increasing. In this study, to determine the recyclability of the fire extinguishing agents, content and leaching test were conducted to identify their health hazards in accordance with the Korean standard method for waste and soil. To this end, nine powders in four new products and five discarded products were sampled from five companies. Analysis of discarded powder of fire extinguishers showed that levels of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr6+,Cr, Hg, Cu, Ni, As, Zn), organic phosphorus, oil, TCE, and PCE were within the levels set out in the Wastes Control Act, the Fertilizer Control Act and the Soil Environment Conservation Act. Only arsenic level in some new and discarded powder of fire extinguisher samples exceeded the acceptable levels as set forth in the Wastes Control Act (1.5 mg/L) and the Soil Environment Conservation Act (25 mg/kg) but within the acceptable arsenic level of 45 mg/kg as set forth in the Fertilizer Control Act. Concentrations of arsenic in the samples ranged from 0.039 to 2.578 mg/L, 6.72 to 38.36 mg/kg. The most commonly used chemical for ABC dry chemical extinguisher is mono-ammonium phosphate, which generally contains up to 0.005% of arsenic and be used as fertilizer. The result confirmed that powder of fire extinguishers could be recycled as fire extinguisher powder or fertilizer as practiced in Japan, USA and UK. But it is necessary to pretreat and meet the regulation of fireextinguisher and fertilizer.
The innovation in this study is the complexation of Erianthus fibers (Erianthus arudinaceus) with compatibilizer inPP by extrusion, to produce a material with an improvement in mechanical properties. The aim is to provide a general-purpose material from biomass that does not compete with food as an alternate material from the petroleum base.Erianthus is a cellulose resource crop which is a source of bio fuel, is inedible, highly productive and promising energyresource, there has been little report on its use as a material. It also is a cellulose resource crop with a high productivityas a fiber reinforcement material with low environmental load. Development of Erianthus fiber reinforced polypropylene(PP) composite material was reviewed. Erianthus fiber was pulverized and the powder was sorted by sieve size, whichwas put through the process of complexation with polypropylene using a twin-screw extruder. The mechanicalcharacteristics of the obtained composite material were evaluated by conducting a tensile strength test and a bendingtest. As a result of using the classified fiber as the filler, it is found that the difference in the surface area of the fiberhas a great effect on the mechanical properties and the thermal decomposition properties. It is found to be sufficientlyfeasible to make Erianthus function as a polypropylene fiber reinforcement element by controlling the size of Erianthusfiber.
Silica fume is a by-product generated in an electric arc furnace during the silicon, ferrosilicon, and other metal alloy manufacturing process. Prefabrication mineral additives such as fly ash, blast furnace slag and silica fume are commonly used as binder materials to improve cement quality, and to reduce cement consumption. Especially silica fume which has a high level of long-term chemical durability is most widely used in high-performance concrete. However, Korea relied 100% on imported silica fume, which is more expensive than other admixture, until 2014. So far, many studies have been conducted on the effects and performance of silica fume used in concrete or replacement material like metakaolin and blast-furnace slag. With the construction of ferrosilicon plant in Korea, silica fume, a by-product of ferrosilicon production process, has been generated as a new industrial waste. Waste products like silica fume contain heavy metal, hence its use as admixture could increase heavy metal contents in concrete. Therefore, to evaluate the environmental hazards of silica fume, when it is assumed to have been exposed to the environment, content analysis and leaching tests for pH, loss on ignition and trace elements (CN, Cr, Cr6+, Cu, Cd, Pb, As and Hg) in silica fume were conducted. The results of pH analysis and loss on ignition test were 2.18 ~ 7.39 and 0.9 ~ 2.1%, respectively. Analysis found that levels of race elements in silica fume produced in Korea were lower than Korean standards set out for designated waste.
Waste lead-acid batteries are recycled and turned into lead and plastics (polypropylene and ABS etc.) through collection, disassembly, crushing, sorting, and washing. In particular, lead is recovered from the scrap by recycling companies and used as raw material in a smelter. Refined lead from smelters is reused as a raw material in new products. It is highly valuable to recover effective metals from waste lead-acid batteries that contain a significant amount of lead under environmentally sound management. In this study, we investigated the composition change and its cause in the process of use and phased out products to understand the discharge characteristics of waste lead-acid batteries. We also suggest examining the correlation between the waste lead-acid battery and the recovered lead to estimate the potential amount of recoverable lead. Finally, we produced a strategic method for accelerating national resource circulation by comprehending the flow of resources and their residues from wastes and propose it as a policy in baseline data.
In case of long novels, many of them are published in newspapers or magazines in the form of serial publications, and then they are published as a single book. It has been asserted that the level of completion of a work becomes enhanced once those novels are published as a single book after going through this process; however, a single book is not always of a higher level of literary work than a serial novel. Park Kyung-ni's “Toji” was published over a period of 25 years. It was published in a series while being moved to nine media, and it began to be published as a single book before the completion of the series. Also, no less than eight publishers published it as a single book. These characteristics are not uncommon. This study was conducted based on a premise that correct versions should be determined to solve problems incurred as novel work in series was published in complex and diverse books (several versions). We have intensively examined several issues which were regarded as dilemma among the matters to be considered for determination of correct versions. The first one is the part revising the nonstandard language used in serial novel at the time of publication of book. Second one is the revised parts when book was published due to self-censorship of author after release as the serial novel. Since the intention of author is important for determining the correct versions, it is natural to accept and reflect it in the correct versions if the author actively revised it. If such reflection deleted the personality of expression or sense of author when releasing the work originally, better selection should be made. It seems best to select the critical good version in a way to raise the personality and literary value of author in the situation when author is not alive. 모든 문학연구는 일차적으로는 텍스트에 대한 엄밀한 검토 위에서 출발하여야 한다. 특히 여러 이본(異本)이 존재하거나 원전이 심각히 훼손된 경우에는 신뢰할 수 있는 원전의 확정이 전제되어야 한다. 현대장편소설의 경우 많은 작품이 신문이나 잡지에 연재 형식으로 발표를 한 후 단행본으로 출간된다. 박경리의 『토지』는 만 25년이라는 긴 연재 기간이 있었고, 9개의 매체를 옮겨 다니며 연재하였고, 연재 완료 이전부터 단행본이 출간되기 시작하였으며, 무려 8곳의 출판사에서 단행본으로 간행되었다. 이 단행본들은 연재본의 부족함을 보완하는 긍정적인 방향과 누락이나 자기 검열 등 부정적인 방향, 즉 상반되는 두 방향으로 수정되었다. 본 연구는 이러한 복잡한 단행본 출판의 문제를 해결할 수 있는 방안으로 정본의 확정이 이루어져야 한다는 전제 하에 정본 확정을 위한 몇 가지 사안들을 살펴보았다. 우선 기본텍스트로 어떤 판본을 선정하여야 하는지 검토하였으며, 정본 확정을 위한 몇 가지 기준을 세워보았다. 또한 난제로 손꼽히는 기준의 충돌과 자기 검열 문제에 대하여 집중적으로 살펴보았다. 작가의 의도를 어느 정도까지 반영할 것인지, 작가가 생존하지 않은 상황에서 충돌하는 여러 문제를 어떤 방향으로 해결할 것인지가 앞으로 해결해야 할 과제이다.
Background: The BC-6800 (Mindray, China) is a recently developed hematology analyzer that utilizes ‘SF Cube Technology' to improve the reliability of complete blood counts (CBC), white blood cell (WBC) differentials, and erythroblast counts. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the BC-6800 for CBC, WBC differentials, reticulocyte counts, and erythroblast counts and analyzed the efficiency of its flag system. Methods: Specimens from 100 healthy controls and 95 patients were used. We performed precision and correlation studies of CBC, WBC differentials,reticulocyte counts, and erythroblast counts. We also analyzed the efficiency of the flag system in detecting abnormal blood cells. Results: The coefficients of variation (CVs) of precision were <2% for most CBC parameters and <5% for neutrophil, eosinophil, and reticulocyte counts. The results obtained using the BC-6800 were well correlated with those of the ADVIA 2120 (Siemens, USA) and LH 750 (Beckman Coulter Corporation, USA). The correlation coefficients (r) were >0.9800 for CBC except erythrocyte indices, and >0.9500 for WBC differentials except monocyte and basophil. The WBC differentials and erythroblast counts obtained using the BC-6800 were well correlated with those of manual counts. The efficiencies of the flag system were 77.9% for Blasts, 82.1% for Immature Gran, 86.3% for Atypical Lymph, and 92.6% for NRBC present. Conclusions: The BC-6800 showed good precision and correlation with pre-existing hematology analyzers. The flag systems were quite efficient for detecting abnormal blood cells. Our study demonstrated that the BC-6800 hematology analyzer exhibits suitable performance and is helpful in routine laboratories. 배경: BC-6800 (Mindray, China)는 최근 개발된 자동혈구분석기로 전혈구계산(Complete blood count, CBC)와 백혈구감별계산,유핵적혈구를 보다 정확하게 측정하기 위해 ‘SF Cube 기술'을 도입하였다. 본 연구에서는 CBC, 백혈구감별계산, 망상적혈구수, 유핵적혈구수 측정에 있어 BC-6800 (Mindray)의 성능과 flag 체계의효율성을 평가하고자 하였다. 방법: 정상 100검체와 비정상 95검체를 대상으로 하였다. CBC, 백혈구감별계산, 망상적혈구수, 유핵적혈구수 측정의 정밀도와 상관성을 분석하였다. 또한 비정상세포를 검출하는 데 있어 flag의 효율성도 평가하였다. 결과: 정밀도분석에서 변이계수(CV)는 대부분 CBC 변수에서는<2%, 호중구와 호산구, 망상적혈구수 측정에서는 <5%였다. BC-6800 (Mindray)의 결과는 ADVIA 2120 (Siemens, USA), LH 750(Beckman Coulter Corporation, USA)와 우수한 상관성을 보였다. 상관계수(r)는 적혈구지수를 제외한 CBC 지표에서 >0.9800였고단구와 호염기구를 제외한 백혈구감별계산에서 >0.9500였다. 그리고 BC-6800 (Mindray)의 백혈구감별계산과 유핵적혈구수 측정은 수기법과도 우수한 상관성을 보였다. 각 flag의 효율성은 Blasts가 77.9%, Immature Gran이 82.1%, Atypical Lymph가 86.3%,NRBC present가 92.6%였다. 결론: BC-6800 (Mindray)은 높은 정밀도를 보이고, 기존의 자동혈구분석기와 우수한 상관성을 보였다. 또한, flag 체계는 비정상세포를 검출하는 데 유용한 결과를 보였다. 본 연구 결과 BC-6800(Mindray)은 우수한 성능의 자동혈구분석기로 일반검사실에서사용하기에 유용할 것으로 생각한다.