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      • KCI등재

        Two Types of Floated Quantifiers

        조윤경 한국중앙영어영문학회 2011 영어영문학연구 Vol.53 No.1

        This paper differentiates the structures of various floated quantifiers, criticizing previous works that place them uniformly in the same structure. Considering that the precise syntactic nature of an expression can be determined only when its semantics is taken into account, the current work articulates the semantic differences found among floated quantifiers along with their distributional discrepancies. The quantifier each, as a distributivity marker, has three uses that are closely associated with three arguments that it is essentially composed of while the quantifiers all and both, as universality markers, are partitioned into two parts, manifesting only two uses. The distinction between the three-part and the two-part structures brings about the distinct syntactic positions of the floated quantifiers. Represented in a flat string, their positions seem identical but, at the hierarchical configurations, their structures must be differentiated. Yet, scrutinizing not only transitive and intransitive constructions but also the ditransitive construction, it is emphasized that the constituent to which the floated quantifier each attaches must be generalized to be the relation-denoting expression of the sentence that is sectioned into three parts. This paper further assumes a movement of the direct object when the floated each occurs in the ditransitive construction and finds that this theory-internally motivated movement is, in fact, empirically justified.

      • KCI등재

        Indefinite Subjects in Specificational Clauses

        조윤경 한국현대언어학회 2014 언어연구 Vol.29 No.4

        The primary goal of this paper is to account for indefinite specificational subjects, the data that previous studies could not explain properly. There have been two approaches to specificational clauses: the concealed-question approach and the topic-focus approach. However, it has been observed that none of the two approaches can adequately handle indefinite specificational subjects. Mikkelsen (2004) has previously attempted to explain indefinite specificational subjects but has hastily concluded that specificational clauses are a type of inversion structure by treating noun phrases containing discourse-old information as discourse- old themselves. However, discussing several problems of Mikkelsen (2004), this paper proposes a new condition for topichood that allows the topic-focus approach to address the seemingly apparent counterexamples. Yet, the contribution of this paper is not confined to specificational clauses per se but sheds light on bigger pictures of linguistics since proposing a Anchored Brand-New Condition for topichood that works conjunctively with the aboutness condition helps us to understand the larger scale of discourse structure. The new condition on topichood permits indefinites to be topics. It is the aboutness condition that explains the fact that the majority of topics are realized by definites.

      • KCI등재

        한국 사회의 아버지들의 자녀 양육 -공동육아어린이집/방과후의 참여 사례를 중심으로-

        조윤경 영남대학교 민족문화연구소 2011 민족문화논총 Vol.0 No.47

        This study analyzed changes in paternal care through participation in a cooperative child care center or cooperative after school club. Although men have constructed their own life on the basis of breadwinner’s identity, fathers reconstructed their own child’ care as well as other child's care in a cooperative child care center or cooperative after school club which gave chance to extend care boundary for society. In addition, fathers had relationships with children in a cooperative child care center or cooperative after school club, so that they made collective intimacy which encouraged fathers to join in a cooperative child care center or cooperative after school club voluntarily. And even though marital relationship often came into conflict, marital relationship which affect other couple as a advisor, a role model reciprocally became cooperative through a cooperative child care center or cooperative after school club. Therefore paternal care for children were reconstructed through cooperative child care centers and after school clubs. 본고는 공동육아생활협동조합어린이집/방과후(이하 ‘육아협동조합’)에서 아버지들이 양육 경험을 재구성하는 과정을 분석했다. ‘육아협동조합’은 공동으로 아이를 키우는 대안적 육아제도이기 때문에 개별 가족을 중심으로 자녀 양육을 책임지는 양육 경험과는 다른 새로운 부모 경험을 선사했다. 특히 공적 영역에서 노동자로서의 위치를 중심으로 자신의 삶을 구성해 왔던 남성들에게 ‘육아협동조합’의 참여는 양육의 경험을 사회적으로 확산시킬 수 있는 기회를 제공했다. 남성들은 ‘육아협동조합’의 어린이들과 집단 친밀성을 형성하고 이를 통해 ‘육아협동조합’에의 참여를 강화했고 자신의 인생관이나 직업관을 성찰할 수 있는 기회를 얻었다. 더 나아가 ‘육아협동조합’의 평일 ‘아마(일일교사)’ 활동을 통해 아버지들은 자신의 아이에 대한 이해와 대화의 폭을 넓힐 뿐만 아니라 아이를 돌보기 위해 필요한 양육의 기술을 체득했다. 특히 양육과정에 소극적으로 참여했던 아버지들도 ‘육아협동조합’의 참여를 통해 양육 과정에서 발생하는 문제에 대처하는 방법을 습득하는 등 ‘육아협동조합’은 그 동안 자녀 양육에 소홀했던 아버지들에게 부모 성장의 기회를 제공했다. 한편, ‘육아협동조합’을 배경으로 하여 아버지들은 자신의 아내와의 관계도 새롭게 정립했다. 조합원들은 ‘육아협동조합’의 운영을 위해 필요한 각종 회의, 가족 행사, 조합원 교육에 참여하면서 배우자와의 이해와 공감의 폭을 넓히고 조합원 활동을 서로 지원하면서 부부 관계는 더욱 협력적이 되었다. 또한 ‘육아협동조합’ 안의 부부들은(조합원들은) 다른 부부들과 상호작용을 하면서 서로의 역할 모델이 되어 주기도 하고 조언자가 되어주기도 하면서 부부 관계의 긴장을 완화시켰다. 따라서 ‘육아협동조합’ 참여를 통한 아버지들의 양육 변화는 아버지들의 양육의 변화가 조합 참여라는 시민 사회적 조우를 통해서도 형성될 수 있음을 보여주고 있다.

      • KCI등재

        ‘이제상즉(二諦相卽)’에 대한 길장의 다층적 해석

        조윤경 한국불교학회 2019 韓國佛敎學 Vol.90 No.-

        The interpretation of Xiangji (相卽) of Jizang plays a key role in connecting early concepts of Xiangji and more complex and elaborate ones developed later. In his Erdiyi, Jizang developed “Xiangji between the two truths (二諦 相卽)” dividing them into two dimensions of Yudi (於諦) and Jiaodi (敎諦), which are the unique concepts of Sanlun School. In discussion of the Xiangji between the two Yudi, he differentiated the Prajnaparamitas’s “what is form that is emptiness (色卽空)” from its “what is emptiness that is form (空卽色)”: He called the former one the enlightenment of holy persons while putting the latter one as the misperception of ordinary people. The Xiangji between the two Jiaodi can be explained with two dimensions. One is the Xiangji as a counterposed preaching (對治悉檀), which is merely a tool to negate the view of two truths being different. The other is the Xiangji as an unhindered (無碍) function of the Prajna’s contemplation. In the Prajna of the enlightened, “contemplating form” is nothing but “contemplating emptiness” and vice versa. Hence, two truths are mutually interfused. This symmetrical correlation between the two truths is expressed in the verse, “What is the the form that is the emptiness, what is the emptiness that is the form (卽色卽空).” Jizang’s creative interpretation on “Xiangji between the two truths” needs to be reassessed in terms of having laid the foundations for the emergence of dynamic and creative thoughts in later Buddhism in China and East Asia. 길장의 상즉(相卽) 해석은 중국철학사에서 ‘상즉’ 개념이 형성된 초기의 ‘상즉’ 개념과 복잡하고 정교하게 발전된 후대의 ‘상즉’ 개념을 매개하는 핵심적 변용과정을 담고 있다. 길장은 『이제의』에서 ‘이제의 상즉[二諦相卽]’을 삼론종의 고유한 개념인 어제(於諦)와 교제(敎諦)의 두 차원으로 나누어 고찰한다. 어이제의 상즉에서는 『반야경』의 ‘色卽空’과 ‘空卽色’을 각각 성인의 깨달음과 범부의 미혹된 인식에 대응시켜 해석한다. 한편, 교이제의 상즉은 두 가지 층위로 나눌 수 있다. 첫째는대치실단(對治悉檀)으로서의 상즉이다. 이 때 상즉[卽]은 교화대상의 다르다는견해[異⾒]를 논파하기 위한 것에 불과하다. 둘째는 ‘반야의 무애한 관조작용’으로서의 상즉이다. 깨달은 자의 반야에서 ‘색을 관조하는 것’은 곧 ‘공을 관조하는것’이 되어, 관조되는 대상인 이제는 상즉할 수밖에 없다. 이러한 이제의 대칭적상관성은 ‘공이 곧 색이고 색이 곧 공[卽色卽空]’이라는 구절로 표현된다. 이처럼 ‘이제상즉’에 대한 길장의 다층적이고 창조적인 해석은 후대 중국불교및 동아시아 사상사에서 역동적이고 독창적인 사상이 출현할 수 있는 기틀을 마련했다는 점에서 그 가치를 재평가할 수 있다.

      • KCI등재
      • Liposome을 이용한 유전자 발현에 관한 연구

        趙潤卿,沈紋廷 동남보건대학 2000 論文集-東南保健大學 Vol.18 No.1

        Gene therapy has demonstrated potential for the treatment of both acquired and inherited diseases. Gene transfer protocols can be classified as viral and non-viral. Viral delivery systems used on a broad scale include retrovirus, adenovirus, adeno-associated virus and herpes simplex. Viral protocols provide higher transfection efficiency. However non-viral delivery protocols include low efficiency and transient expression but have less potential toxicity and common methods for gene therapy that include liposomal vector system. These liposomal vesicles are a well-known drug delivery system with the advantages of simplicity in preparation, and safety in human use. In this report, we had examined transfection of DNA/cationic liposome complexes by expression of green fluorescence protein after transformation of pEGFP-Nl plasmid DNA in competent cell and DNA isolation by mini preperation.. Vector development remains a critical area for future research.

      • KCI등재

        일반 보육시설장의 장애아동 통합 보육에 대한 인식 조사

        조윤경,이창미 한국영유아보육학회 2003 한국영유아보육학 Vol.0 No.33

        In order to collect the data for the quantitative and qualitative expansion of child-care service for children with disabilities, this study surveyed the attitudes of directors of child-care center, whom considered as the important agent for inclusive service. The survey participants were chosen as random sampling in 16 cities and provinces according to condition including 100 normal developing children, delivering no inclusive service for child with disabilities. 111 directors of child-care center were responded among 300 directors. The results showed that directors were very positive on need and priority of inclusive service for children with disabilities. And half of them answered the experiences of caring child with disabilities. Caring child with disabilities was more difficult than caring child without disabilities. The reasons to difficulties were the poor physical environments of centers, the anxiousness about health and safety of child with disabilities, the lack of the qualified teachers for child with disabilities. As strategies to solve these problems, training the qualified teachers for child with disabilities, remodeling the centers, supports for financial and program perspectives were suggested. But if these suggestions were met, the directors responded they could minimal caring for child with disabilities. The future direction to decrease the gap between perception and implementation for inclusive services and to increase the child-care service for children with disabilities were discussed.

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