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This paper treats the inverse scope reading of the Inverse-Linking Construction under a new perspective that distributivity is reduced to plurality based on Landman (2000). The immediate advantage is that my analysis can explain the inverse scope reading of the Inverse-Linking Construction that does not contain a universal quantifier, the data that previous approaches could not explain. Second, my analysis can account for why there is no inverse scope reading when the first NP in the Inverse-Linking Construction is definite, without missing the generalization that indefiniteness licenses distributivity. Third, my analysis is compositional throughout the process of producing the distributive reading, without reinterpreting the prepositional phrase that contains a quantifier phrase. In addition to putting forth the analysis, I further characterize the inverse scope reading as NP-internal, backward, and embedded distributivity
The present study has sought to examine the relative effectiveness of two prereading activities (i.e., previewing and vocabulary preteaching) when employed in Korean EFL elementary classes. Specifically, it examined (a) the treatment effects on the learners' reading comprehension and attitudes, and (b) the interaction effects of treatment and proficiency level on the learners' reading comprehension and attitudes. To this end, 95 sixth graders in three intact classes at a local elementary school in Busan were randomly assigned to one of the control group, previewing group, and vocabulary preteaching group. They were then asked to take a pretest and a pre-questionnaire, receive two-week treatments, and take a posttest and a post-questionnaire. The overall findings suggested that vocabulary preteaching as a prereading activity might not be beneficial for young learners, presumably because too much focus on language aspects may have taken their attention away from the story and reading. On the other hand, the previewing activity was observed to have positive effects on learners' attitudes toward English learning and reading. Furthermore, the interaction effects of treatment and proficiency levels were observed only in the attitudes toward English learning and reading. Pedagogical implications and directions for future research are discussed.
Language and Information 12.2 , 77-93. This paper examines a condition that licenses distributivity. Choe (1987) and Link (1998) have proposed an indefiniteness condition on distributivity. However, detecting counterexamples, Zimmermann (2002) has argued for a non-specificity condition. This paper primarily revises the indefiniteness/non-specificity condition. Observing that the systematic class of the exceptions belongs to weak definites proposed by Poesio (1994), I claim that the property that constrains distributivity is non-strong-definiteness. Based on Landman (2000), I further explain the nonstrong-definiteness condition and argue that the condition does not need to be imposed on the grammar independently. The new condition naturally accounts for Spector's (2003) scopal asymmetry. Even more, defining donkey pronouns as weak definites, I cope with various properties of donkey sentences.
Distributivity has been one of the central topics in formal semantics. However, no due attention has been paid to embedded distributivity that very frequently occurs in natural languages. In this paper, I propose a formal analysis for embedded distributivity. In analyzing embedded distributivity, I employ no complicated mechanisms but pluralization. Since distributivity is reduced to plurality as Landman (2000) argues, employing plural formation is not an ad hoc approach to embedded distributivity. That is, the plural variable inserted in the process of deriving embedded distributivity is motivated in a principled manner since the pluralization occurs inside a pluralization operator. Moreover, I point out that the plural variable made available is not restricted to entities.
English quantifier all can occur with collective activity and accomplishment predicates but cannot be used with collective state and achievement predicates. This generalization has been termed a Taub's generalization. Previously, Brisson (1998) has attempted to explain the generalization by claiming that activity and accomplishment predicates have a DO head while state and achievement predicates lack such a head. Discussing various problems concerning this approach, I will provide an alternative account. This paper will claim that English all exhausts the members of a sum individual, blocking a group individual. This is how the maximality reading of English all is generated. This claim can further explain Taub's generalization if we assume that collective state and achievement predicates require a group individual as the subject while collective activity and accomplishment predicates do not have such a requirement. This explanation can also be extended to account for the behaviors of English both.
Birner (1998) analyzes the construction of inversion within the centering theory, claiming that the preposed constituent in the inversion structure represents the backward-looking center that connects the current utterance to the previous discourse. However, this paper refutes such a strong claim, pointing out various problems of her work. Instead, this paper argues that the preposed element in the inversion construction is merely the preferred center under the condition that the ranking of the forward-looking centers is determined by the surface word order, rather than by grammatical relations. Thus, this paper claims that the discourse function of the construction of inversion is not text development but merely prominence-giving, in the sense of Ili´c (1998).