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Purpose: Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection in the airways is thought to be associated with the pathogenesis of asthma, especially in non-atopic severe asthma with irreversible airway obstruction that may be related to airway remodeling. Here, we investigated whether C. pneumoniae infection enhances the secretion of critical chemical mediators for airway remodeling, such as VEGF, TGF-b, and TIMP-1, in human bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) in a Th2-dominant microenvironment. Methods: Human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B cells) were infected with C. pneumoniae strain TW183 and cultured in both a Th1-dominant microenvironment with INF-g and a Th2-dominant microenvironment with IL-4 or IL-13 added to the culture medium. The VEGF, TGF-b, and TIMP-1 levels in the culture supernatants were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The activation of NF-kB in each experimental condition was determined using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Results: Chlamydophila pneumoniae-infected BECs showed enhanced secretion of VEGF, TGF-b, and TIMP-1 compared with non-infected BECs. The levels of cytokines secreted from BECs were increased more when IL-13 was added to the culture medium. C. pneumoniae-infected BECs also showed increased NF-kB activation. Conclusions: These results suggest that C. pneumoniae may play a role in the pathogenesis of airway remodeling in asthma, revealing a Th2-dominant immune response. Further studies are required to clarify the precise mechanism of C. pneumoniae infection in airway remodeling
In order to get the quality in the forming ability of fish paste, mixed fish meat from several fish which were caught in the Yellow Sea has been examined by means of the criteria of the Hokaido Association of Refrigeration. It has been treated each processing step, frequency of bleaching and the rate of sugar in accordance with the period of cold storage. The results obtained are as follows; 1.Saurida undosquamis and Chelidonichthys kumu are good enough by means of three times of bleaching, but Pseudosciaena manchurica, Arelisus rhomaleus and Pseudosciaena manchurica(young) are as more fine as the bleaching has a frequency. Pseudosciaena manchurica is difficult for dehydration because of being swellen through over bleaching. Moreover its meat is so gray tha there is little effect with all bleaching. 2.The production of Pseudosciaena manchurica which has six times of bleaching, 10% sugar is A class after eight weeks, but the others are almost C class, and so it should probaly be used only for supplement of increasing weight . There fore sugar should be added 20% and the period of storage is naturally prolonged, as a result it is the best method for fresh meat to be mixed it up with the propel ratio of sugar.