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Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of an educational intervention that includes information sharing about absolute fracture risk on the knowledge of osteoporosis and modifiable risk factors among Korean patients with osteoporosis. Methods: Adults aged >50 years who visited the outpatient clinic for osteoporosis were recruited. Subjects with trauma-related fractures or pathological fractures were excluded. The anthropometric data and clinical risk factors for fracture were collected at baseline. The participants completed the survey questionnaire that measured their knowledge regarding osteoporosis at baseline and then received information about the risk of fracture and individual education. Fracture risk was classified into five groups according to degree. The post-survey was conducted 3 months later. The pretest results were compared with the posttest results. Results: In this study, 179 subjects (15 men and 164 women) were enrolled. After the educational intervention, the mean osteoporosis knowledge score significantly increased from 10.6±5.7 at pre-education (baseline) to 11.7±6.3 at post-education (P<0.001). When comparing the pre- and post-education Korean fracture risk scores, a negligible difference was found between the “very low risk” and “low risk” groups. However, the scores in the “very high risk” and “high risk” groups decreased from 77.6% to 76.0%. We found a difference over time only in physical activity. Conclusions: Simple educational intervention is effective in increasing osteoporosis knowledge among Korean patients with osteoporosis. It may confer some benefit by providing information about osteoporotic fracture risks to improve knowledge and awareness regarding osteoporosis.
This study is about finding out characteristic of recognition individual housing in seaside of Donghae. To accomplish this purpose, we survey the 150 houses related to the landscape. Thus the major analysis is to take basic data, such as image(modern, western, traditional, etc) about exterior form of housing corresponding to the landscape. The result summarized as follows First, the elements for the characteristic of recognition were exterior material finish, exterior color, roof type, roof material finish, window size, roof slope, area of wall vs roof. Second, the image of traditional housing was very insufficient to plan landscape of housing with design elements. This research suggests that landscape housing of future is to be environmental landscape design and the proper design is to be various considering not only user's preference but also control of landscape.
The present article aims at investigating the effects of high-energy electron beam irradiation on surface hardening and improvement of fatigue properties in an AISI 4140 steel currently used for automotive crankshaft. The 4140 steel samples were irradiated at atmosphere by using an electron accelerator and, then the microstructure, hardness, and fatigue property were examined. The beam power was varied in the range of 53-70㎾ by changing the beam current. Upon irradiation, the unirradiated microstructure containing band structure was changed to martensite, bainite in the carbon-rich zone or ferrite, bainite, and martensite in the carbon-depleted zone. This microstructural modification improved greatly the surface hardness and fatigue properties due to transformation of martensite whose amount and type were determined by the heat input during irradiation. Thus, the high-energy electron beam irradiation can be effectively applied to the surface hardening process of automotive parts.
Phase change material-polystyrene (PCM-PSt) nanocapsules were prepared via a modified resin-fortified miniemulsion (RFME) polymerization process using an alkali soluble resin (ASR). Poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) (SAA), which is a functional amphiphilic polymer, was used as the surfactant for the resin-fortified emulsion polymerization. A co-surfactant and a crosslinker were adopted to improve the PCM encapsulation efficiency. The average particle size and heat capacity of the optimized PCM-PSt nanocapsules were about ~280 nm as measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and ~110 J/g as measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), respectively. The morphology and the inner structure of the nanocapsules were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The synthesized nanocapsules showed good adhesive and thermal storage properties, and were amenable for processing by dip-coating methods.