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A 29-year-old man suffering from dyspnea and eosinophilic pleural effusion after being on warfarin for pulmonary thromboembolism for a period of one month, was readmitted to our hospital. Etiology of pleural effusion other than warfarin was excluded. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of warfarin-induced pleural effusion reported in Korea.
Carton and corrugated paperboard have excellent convertibility characteristics that could be easily slitted, folded, and inserted to become a certain shape of box or case. This excellent processing characteristics of carton and corrugated paperboard as well as their recyclability will continue to make them possess high portion in packaging markets. However, staple, tape, or adhesive have been used to seal a paperboard packaging box or case. Staples among them have been frequently used in many cases because of their convenience. Staples could enter the inside the box and give wounds to the goods in the box or case. Furthermore additional handling and waste treatment costs in the making and recycling processes would be necessary when staple is used to seal box or case. This study has been carried out to develop non-staple paperboard packaging box & case designs that can be used to make non-staple boxes & cases. It is believed that the non-staple folding paperboard boxes & cases could be more environmental-friendly, beautiful, and economic than staple boxes & cases.
This study aimed to identify genetic polymorphisms associated with fatty acid composition in Hanwoo beef. In this study,three SNPs (-867G>C, -877Gdel and 878T>C) were detected in SCD gene by DNA sequencing and PCR-RFLP. Statistical analysis revealed that 878T>C SNP was significantly associated with total saturated (p=0.016), unsaturated (p=0.016), and monounsaturated fatty acid (p=0.026) composition. However, the other two SNPs (-867G>C and -877Gdel) that are detected in the regulatory region of the SCD gene have no association with the fatty acid composition of Hanwoo meat. The 878C (alanine type) allele was found to be associated with 2.2% higher monounsaturated fatty acid, 1.5% lower saturated fatty acid, and 1.4% higher unsaturated fatty acid content than those associated with the 878T (valine type) allele. These results indicate that the non-synonymous SNP (878T>C) in the SCD gene could be a causal mutation that contributes to the MUFA variation in Hanwoo beef.
Objectives: The project Seoul Atopy∙Asthma-friendly School investigated the current status of childhood asthma to enable formulation of a preventative policy. We evaluated the current prevalence of childhood asthma in Seoul and its trends and related factors. Methods: The project was conducted annually from 2011 to 2016 and involved around 35 000 children aged 1-13 years. Based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood guidelines, the survey involved parents. The associations of the particulate matter (PM10) concentration, and the number of days on which the daily air quality guidance level was exceeded in the 25 districts of Seoul, with the prevalence of asthma were assessed. Results: The age-standardized asthma prevalence in 2011 and 2016 was 6.74 and 4.02%, respectively. The prevalence of lifetime asthma treatment and treatment during the last 12 months tended to decrease from 2011 to 2016. Asthma treatment was significantly correlated with the number of days on which the daily air quality guidance level was exceeded, but not with the PM10 concentration. Conclusions: This study reports the prevalence of asthma among children in Seoul and confirmed the relationship between childhood asthma and known risk factors in a large-scale survey.
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Objectives: This study developed and validated an analysis method of urinary metals and metalloids that can be applied inductively with coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Methods: 0.3 mL of urine was used to analyze 25 metal and metalloid compounds using ICP-MS. The validation of the analytical method included linearity, accuracy, precision, and the calculation of detection limits. In addition, a comparison test was performed with the graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) method, which is the current standard method, with urine samples of 66 healthy subjects. Results: The linearities (R2 ) of calibration curves of all 25 compounds were ≥ 0.999. Of the 25 compounds, the intra-day and inter-day accuracy% of 17 and 20 met ≤15%, respectively. In addition, fifteen compounds showed ≤15% recovery% for certificated reference materials. Intraclass correlation coefficients of the comparison between the current methods and new methods in this study were 0.952 (p-value<0.001) and 0.911 (p-value<0.001) for urinary cadmium and mercury, respectively. Conclusion: This study proposes an efficient simultaneous methodology that can analyze multi elements in smaller sample amounts. More reproduction experiments are needed in the future.
리기다소나무 목분의 열화학적 전환에 의한 직접액화 ( II ) - 황산알루미늄 촉매와 탄산나트륨 촉매에 의한 전가수분해 목분에 대하여 - ( Thermochemical Direct Liquefaction of Prehydrolyzed Pitch Pine , Pinus rigida Miller , Wood Meals ( II ) - For Prehydrolyzed Wood Meals by Aluminum Sulfate Catalyst and Sodium Carbonate Catalyst - )