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Transaminases are valuable enzymes For the production oi optically pure unnatural amino acids, chiral amines and many D-amino acids through asymmetric synthesis or kinetic resolution. However, although transaminases have appropriate characteristics such as rapid reaction rates, broad substrate specificity and no requirement for external cofactor regeneration, the frequently cited drawback is the equilibrium constant for the reaction. We screened microorganisms having asymmetric synthesis activity for the production of L-2-amino-4-phenylbutyric acid (L-APBA) from 2-oxo-4-pTienyTbutyric acid (OPBA) using L-aspartic acid (L-ASP) as amino donor from soil samples. Among them, we have selected one microorganism showed the highest acceptor specificity to OPBA and the lowest specificity to pyruvate as amino acceptor. To characterize screened transaminase, we carried out purification of this transaminase. Using partially purified transaminase, we found that this transaminase also foHows ping-pong bi-bi mechanism and shows excellent stability at 37℃. Based on the substrate specificity study, this transaminase appears to be a kind of aromatic transaminases (ArAT). We tried to produce L-APBA at high concentration of OPBA using fed-batch type reaction.
Purpose: Along with the trend increasing dining-out and enjoying variety of menu, dessert café has been introduced as a new type of food service provider and grown up rapidly. We need to verify structural relationship that dessert café environment influences overall quality and brand image and loyalty. Research design, data, and methodology: This study seeks to understand how in-café environment influence overall quality, brand image and loyalty directly and indirectly based on SOR theory. We examine detail effect of in-café environment on overall quality and brand image and subsequently loyalty. Sample data were collected from 563 online survey panels and analyzed by using SmartPLS 3.2.9. Result: The results indicates that all sub-dimensions of in-café environment influences positively overall quality. While, menu and atmosphere make positive impact on brand image. price, food and beverage quality, employee service do not affect significantly brand image. Further, overall quality influences positively brand image and both overall quality and brand image affect positively loyalty. In addition, overall quality plays full mediator role in relationship among price, food and beverage quality, employee service and brand image. Conclusions: Dessert café should differentiate itself from competitors through physical and non-physical environments which are likely to influence overall quality. As overall quality mediates between environment and brand image and influences loyalty, dessert café is required to communicate strength of functional quality and service quality aggressively. Additionally, favorable brand image affecting loyalty is required to be dominated in advance as the market is likely to be segmented along with its growth.
Resonant X-ray scattering measurements for a GdB4 single crystal have been carried out at Gd L3- and L2-edges. Branching ratios between x-ray scattering intensities at two x-ray energies are di®erent for resonance peaks. Their analysis shows di®erent anisotropic characters of 5d electron states of Gd ions corresponding to the peaks.
An iterative design-build-test-learn cycle was applied to genome-reduction in Escherichia coli. A genome-reduced strain harboring 3,457 genes in total was generated that showed impaired growth in minimal media that could not be understood based on the genes removed. We thus deployed adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) to re-optimize growth performance of the genome-reduced strain. We showed that the genome-reduced strain served as a better host for the production of proteins of interest encoded by highly transcribing genes. Re-optimization using ALE reveals that failure of prediction may not be associated with understanding individual gene products but rather result from insufficient understanding of the genome-reduced strain’s systems biology.
In general, jerk phenomenon appeared because of gear changing, when a vehicle starts off or climbs an incline. Therefore, it makes ride quality worse. In this paper, an optimal pattern of automatic transmission was designed using fuzzy logic in order to improve ride quality. After del eloping fuzzy rule for shift pattern control of automatic transmission, dynamic characteristics (i.e. acceleration, velocity, distance and so on) were simulated using dynamic model of a car. To do this he powertrain model of a vehicle with automatic transmission including torque converter, gear box, and final gear drive - from engine to tire - is developed.
Purpose: An analytic method to design excitation and emission filters of a multispectral fluorescence imaging system is proposed and was demonstrated in an application to poultry fecal inspection Methods: A mathematical model of a multispectral imaging system is proposed and its system parameters, such as excitation and emission filters, were optimally determined by linear discriminant analysis (LDA). An alternating scheme was proposed for numerical implementation. Fluorescence characteristics of organic materials and feces of poultry carcasses are analyzed by LDA to design the optimal excitation and emission filters for poultry fecal inspection. Results: The most appropriate excitation filter was UV-A (about 360nm) and blue light source (about 460nm) and band-pass filter was 660-670 nm. The classification accuracy and false positive are 98.4% and 2.5%, respectively. Conclusions: The proposed method is applicable to other agricultural products which are distinguishable by their spectral properties.
Defects exist underneath the fruit skin are not easily discernable by using conventional color imaging technique in the visible wavelength ranges. Development of sensitive detection methods for the defects is necessary to ensure accurate quality sorting of fruits. Hyperspectral imaging techniques, which combine the features of image and spectroscopy to acquire spatial and spectral information simultaneously, have demonstrated good potentials for identifying and detecting anomalies on biological substances. In this study, a high spatial resolution hyperspectral reflectance technique was presented as a tool for detecting bruises on apple. The two-band ratio (494 nm / 952 nm) and simple threshold methods were applied to investigate the feasibility of discriminating the bruises from sound tissue of apple. The pixel wise accuracy of the discrimination was 74%. The resultant images processed with selected wavebands and morphologic algorithm distinctively showed the early stages of bruises on apple which were not discernable by naked eyes as well as a conventional color camera. Results demonstrated good potential of the hyperspectral reflectance imaging for detection of bruises on apple.