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The Third Sector could become main policy agenda in the current situation. Korean society has made diverse social policies encouraging the Third Sector with the growth of civil society after democratization. The Third Sector is defined between Market and Public Sector. The Third Sector includes not only voluntary activities, non-government organizations and non-profit organizations in civil society but also social enterprises and cooperative associations in social economy. The Seoul Metropolitan Government has made supporting programs in accordance with the central government policies. Now issues on NPOs in civil society would be main foci of social policies in Seoul. So, this study attempts to examine NPOs’ activities and social policies supporting the Third Sector. While examining the history of civil society and growth of organizations, government policies could be regarded as determinant factors formulating the Third Sector. After survey on NPOs and interview meeting with activists, limits and problems of supporting programs are examined. The public supporting and subsidy could be in conflict with social value of voluntary associations. With this recognition of this situation, this study suggests various policy issues for Seoul Metropolitan Government(SMG). The coordination of various programs could be necessary for development of the Third Sector. The social policy on the NPOs should be oriented for voluntary activities of associations. The SMG could prepare for supporting or mediating centers facilitating activities of NPOs with cooperative arrangement. The creativeness and voluntary resources of citizens could be organized in the accumulation of social capital.
Citizen empowerment could become main policy agenda in the current situation. Korean society has been recognized as polarized one that could be obstacle to progress towards advanced society. The Seoul Metropolitan Government has emphasized communication with civil society as well as active urban society. Now issues on the citizen empowerment would be main foci of social policies in Seoul. So, this study attempts to examine theoretical basis and urban policies regarding the empowerment. While examining the social quality approach and Korean application, the indicator framework of social empowerment is presented for Seoul. Korean society and Seoul urban society are evaluated on the framework of the social empowerment. The social empowerment is defined in the theoretical work of social quality. Empowerment is concerned with “the means and processes and relations necessary for people to be capable of actively participating in social relations and actively influencing the immediate and more distant social and physical environment”. The empowerment is focused on the capabilities and the ability of people which are enhanced by social relations. Government could empower citizens while implementing accountable policy as well as democratic participation. With this recognition of social empowerment, this study suggests various policy recommendations for Seoul Metropolitan Government according to each area of social empowerment framework. The social empowerment is developed alongside knowledge, communication and participation. SMG should support citizen learning and education system and emphasize qualitative job creation for citizen capabilities. Leadership in the government should reside in the communication with citizen. Policy agenda should become open to citizen participation. Also, the regional community and civil society should be facilitated along institution of citizen participation.
Social capital becomes main policy agenda in the current situation. Korean society has been recognized as the low-trust one that could be obstacle to progress towards advanced society. The Seoul Metropolitan Government has emphasized communication and trust with civil society. Now issues on the social capital would be main foci of social policies in Seoul. So, this study attempts to examine theoretical basis and urban policies regarding the social capital formation. While examining research works, comparative studies and Korean application, the indicator framework of social capital is presented for Seoul. Korean society and Seoul urban society are evaluated on the framework of the social capital. The social capital is variously defined by different research works. However it is commonly regarded as social network, participation, trust and norm that facilitate collective action including cooperation and coordination. The effects of social capital would be diffused to society where individuals have opportunities to enhance social well-bing. Government improves its performance while implementing accountable policy as well as democratic decision making. Also economic performance such as development and growth is founded on the social capital formation in the advanced society. With this recognition of social capital formation, this study suggests various policy recommendations for Seoul Metropolitan Government according to each area of social capital framework. SMG should focus on public trust for the success of reform. Innovation of public service could be depend on communication with citizen. Leadership in the government should be emphasized in the communication with citizen. Information culture and critical culture are emphasized for trust formation. Social network in the regional community and civil society should be facilitated along institution of citizen participation. Participatory democracy emphasizes non-government organizations which could mediate administration and citizen interest in civil society. The social capital is formulated in the participation on voluntary organizations in regional communities. At last, the social capital becomes resources for strategic urban policies.
A new approach to the e-government is necessary while the information technology evolves into ‘ubiquitous’ technology. The Korean Government has made new policy plans about the Information Society while it reorganized the Committee on National Information Strategy. Seoul Metropolitan Government (SMG) had led e-government policy involving advanced government services. Now, it is time that next the generation model of e-government should be considered for Seoul facing transition to next term of mayor. This study attempts to search for the new model of e-government for Seoul. While studying the national information plans such as the u-Korea Plan, the National Information Plan, the Next Generation e-Government Implementation Plan and the Ubiquitous City Integration Plan, this study suggests policy agenda and strategies for the e-government for Seoul. Also this study analyzes trends of information technology with framework of e-government consisting of civil society, organization and public services. The next generation of e-government should be oriented for e-governance, efficient works and personalized ubiquitous services. With this recognition of next model of e-Government, this study suggests several policy recommendations. “Government with Citizen, Convenient Urban Life” is provided as a slogan for the vision of Seoul e-government. The next generation e-government should emphasize citizen empowerment, quality of public service, efficiency of urban management and the integration of information with regard to participation, service and information. Also the e-government policy should concord with the u-city policy for implementing the extended model of e-government. For the SMG, the role of information planning agency should be strengthened while recognizing e-government policy implementation as the innovation process of government.
A new approach to society is necessary while economic recession goes on in 2009. Policy agenda have consisted of the quality of life and competitiveness in the globalization era. Although these agenda will continue in economic coordination, social issues may arise in the conflicts of economic interests. This study attempts to search for new policy agenda and theory for Seoul society. Social quality is a comprehensive conception of people’s life and society. This conception arise from the reflection of society in Europe. After constituting social quality theory in the 1990s, the social quality approach has develop comparative research framework ranging from concept, to methodology and to policy agenda. In this study, while examining European research works, Asian comparative studies and Korean application, social quality indicator framework is presented for Seoul. Seoul urban society is evaluated on the framework of the social quality approach which consists of four areas; socio-economic security, social cohesion, social inclusion and social empowerment. With this recognition of social quality, this study suggests several policy agenda for the creative administration of Seoul Metropolitan Government. Urban policy should be oriented for the dynamic equilibrium among security, participation, trust and activity. SMG(Seoul Metropolitan Government) should consider various policy issues of urban society for social quality; material innovation, safety and security, solidarity and social integration, conflicts and participation, balancing regional identity, and individual empowerment. Above all, social policy of fundamental should focus on ‘flexicurity’ of employment, polarization and poverty problems, public health system, as well as education for equity and opportunity.
Violent crimes have become a hot issue as crimes such as homicide, sexual assault, and crime against children occur frequently recently. In Seoul, five violent crimes(murder, robbery, rape, violence, burglary) have steadily increased since 2006. Seoul is particularly vulnerable to crimes as a heavily populated urban area. The purpose of this study is to analyze the characteristics of daily-life crimes and crime-prone areas in Seoul and suggest policy and measures for crime prevention. Based on the characteristics of crime-prone areas, this study suggests two types of crime prevention measures; urban spatial measures focusing on urban physical built environments, and social and administrative measures focusing on crime prevention activities of police, local governments, and citizen.
Recently, Seoul and Korea have experienced large-scale or newly emerging disasters frequently such as land slides, infectious diseases, earthquakes, and ferry sinks. Emerging high-impact urban disasters are difficult to prepare and respond because they are difficult to predict due to high levels of uncertainty and large-scale consequences once taking place. They are typically beyond usual public concerns and capacity. This study identifies emerging high-impact urban disasters in Seoul in the future and proposes policy directions to cope with such disasters. First, the study discusses concepts of emerging high-impact urban disasters and various associated concepts. Criteria of high-impact disasters are also reviewed with existing institutions and policies. Second, through past cases of urban disasters of Seoul and other metropolitan cities, the study analyses characteristics and trends of high-impact urban disasters. Also, the study looks through changes of urban conditions and the impacts on disaster risks in terms of urban spaces, socioeconomic changes, climate change, newly emerging technologies, and international situations. Third, based on questionnaire survey data, the study analyzes perceptions of citizen and experts on emerging high-impact urban disasters. Fourth, the study identifies possible emerging high-impact urban disasters in Seoul in the future. Such disasters are classified into two types: traditional high-impact disasters that have persistently taken place and are predicted to increase in future, and emerging urban disasters that are anticipated to take place in future in terms of changes of urban conditions and experiences of other metropolitan cities. Fifth, the study proposes policy directions to cope with emerging high-impact urban disasters in Seoul. As a basic directive concept, the study emphasizes to secure urban disaster resilience since the disasters are beyond usual capacity and resources due to unpredictability and uncertainty. Under the umbrella of urban resilience, the study propose policy and institutional changes in terms of comprehensive disaster reduction capacities of urban spaces, crisis management systems, and information sharing and knowledge building. Finally, the appendix shows evacuation simulations with the case study of large-scale disasters in a downtown subway station in Seoul and evaluates evacuation sufficiency.