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In order for children to acquire language as rapidly as they do, they must have biases that enable them to rule out many alternative hypotheses for the meanings of a word and that lead them instead to focus on hypotheses that are reasonably likely to be correct. One way children initially constrain word meanings is to assume that words are mutually exclusive - that each object has only one label. Although a mutual exclusivity assumption can be useful in word learning, it interferes the children`s understandings of class inclusion relations. Because class inclusion relations violate a mutual exclusivity assumption. The study 1 examined whether subjects assume that each object has only one category label. The studies 2, 3, 4 focus on whether subjects accept two label for the same object if they believe that the label denote categories from different levels of a hierarchy. Together, these studies examined whether subjects accept two labels for the same object when one object-one label strategy is no longer possible. The result of study 1 showed that both 3- and 5-year-old children and adults assume words are mutually exclusive-that each object has only one label. This is surprising because adults undoubtedly know many word that name overlapping categories(e. g., dog, animal, pet). This finding suggests that a mutual exclusivity assumption would be invariant cognitive constraints. The result of study 2, 3, 4 revealed that 3-and 5-year-old children made quite a few errors in learning the hierarchical relations among categories, and the majority of the errors were treating the labels as mutually exclusive subsets. But they have accepted two labels for the same object if experimenter repeatedly explains about the relations. Together, the result of studies showed that subjects accepted two labels for the same object when one object- one label strategy is no longer possible. These results indicate that children may have trouble to deal with the hierarchically organized category terms which violate a mutual exclusivity assumption. Together, these results indicate that 3-year-old children have the capacity to override a mutual exclusivity assumption as long as there is enough evidence that two names denote the same object.
To investigate the effect of food habits on the bone state of the senior citizens, two groups were tested: one(111 senior citizens) was healthy ordinary senior citizens over 65 years old and the other(51 senior citizens) was patients distinguished as having osteoporosis. The present dietary intake was estimated by a 24-hr recall method, and individual dietary history. For the data analysis, percentages and frequencies were calculated and x²-test was undertaken to test the relation among values. The following results were obtained: patient group with osteoporosis was less in height and weight than the group of ordinary senior citizens(160.33㎝, 59.99㎏). It was much less than the average Korean senior citizens(15㎝, 54.9㎏). Food appetite in the group of patient was worse than that of ordinary senior citizens group. According to their dietary history(58.8%), the food intake pattern was most of vegetables(62.0%). Eventhough they haven't been intaken milk after recognizing of their osteoporosis(74.5%). Most of them didn't improve their food habits to help Ca metabolism. Also they have depress of their life(50%). All subjects certainly took insufficient energy, Ca, protein from their diets. Moreover the major source of Ca were vegetables, seaweeds and legumes.
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Objectives: To document the incidence and pattern of c-kit protein expression & mutation in adenoid cystic carcinomas. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five cases of adenoid cystic carcinomas of the major and minor salivary glands and the upper and lower respiratory tract were subjected to the immunohistochemical study for ckit(CD117 ; Dako). Nineteen cases of them were analyzed for mutations in exon 11 and exon 17 by PCR-SSCP, and in cases of need, by DNA sequencing. Results: Twenty-three cases (92%) showed c-kit expression, but none showed mutations in exon 11 and exon 17. The expression was restricted to the inner luminal cells in all tubular types and most of cribriform adenoid cystic carcinomas, while the staining was diffuse in all solid variants and two cribriform types. Conclusion: C-kit expression was common in adenoid cystic carcinomas, regardless of their origins. Although genetic bases await further studies, a clinical trial of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in adenoid cystic carcinomas, especially in solid variants, is considered encouraging.
본 연구에서는 대학생을 대상으로 자폐적 성향과 공감하기 및 체계화하기능력간의 관계를 알아보고자 하였다. 연구 1에서는 대학생 355명을 대상으로 자폐스펙트럼(AQ) 척도, 공감하기(EQ) 척도, 체계화하기(SQ-R) 척도를 실시하였다. 그 결과 AQ 점수는 EQ 점수, D 점수(각 개인의 공감하기 수준과 체계화하기 수준의 상대적 차이)와는 부적상관을 보였으나, SQ-R 점수와는 통계적으로 유의한 차이를 보이지 않았다. 이 결과는 자폐 성향이 강할수록 공감하기 능력은 떨어지나, 체계화하기 능력과는 관계가 없음을 보여준다. 연구 2에서는 연구 1의 실험참가자의 AQ 점수에 근거하여 자폐적 성향이 높은 집단과 그렇지 않은 집단을 분류한 후 자폐적 성향(유, 무), 얼굴제시영역(얼굴전체, 눈, 입), 정서유형(기본, 복합)에 따라 얼굴표정읽기 능력이 어떻게 달라지는지 알아보았다. 그 결과 자폐적 성향이 없는 집단에 비해 자폐적 성향이 높은 집단이, 기본정서보다는 복합정서에서 과제 정확률이 더 떨어졌고, 얼굴전체 영역, 눈 영역, 입 영역 순으로 과제 수행이 낮았는데, 특히 눈 조건에서 자폐적 성향이 높은 집단이 그렇지 않은 집단에 비해 정서읽기능력이 떨어지는 결과를 보였다. 본 연구의 결과는 공감능력, 얼굴표정읽기능력이 자폐적 성향과 관계가 있음을 시사한다. This study consists of two sections to figure out the relationship between autistic features and empathizing-systemizing traits. For the first section, the research involved 355 university students to measure their EQ, SQ-R and AQ. As a result, it is found that AQ was negatively correlated to EQ, and D score(relative difference between EQ and SQ-R of the individuals), but it was not significantly related to SQ-R. It means that the subject has high AQ if he has relatively lower EQ than SQ-R. For the second section, the subjects were divided into two groups based on their AQ score; the subjects who had a tendency of autism and the subjects who did not. The test measured how these two groups were different in terms of facial expressions` recognition according to the tendency of autism, facial expression presenting areas(whole face, eyes-alone, mouth-alone) and different types of emotions(basic and complex emotions). As a result, the subjects who had a tendency of autism were lower at judging facial expressions than the subjects who did not. Also, the results showed that the subjects judged better on the condition of basic emotions more than complex emotions, the whole face more than eyes-alone and mouth-alone. Especially, for the eyes-alone condition, the subjects who had a tendency of autism were lower at judging facial expressions than the subjects who did not. This study suggests that empathizing traits and facial expressions` recognition are related to the tendency of autism.
본 연구는 성별과 연령, 감성차원(날카롭다/부드럽다, 앳되다/성숙하다)에 따라 얼굴매력에 대한 평가가 달라지는지 알아보고자 하였다. 본 연구는 각 참가자들에게 60개의 여성 얼굴 사진에 대하여 9점 척도로 이루어진 세 차원(‘날카롭다/부드럽다', ‘앳되다/성숙하다', ‘전혀 매력적이지 않다/매력적이다')에 평정하도록 제시하였고, 총 131명이 참가하였다(초등학생: 48명, 중학생: 44명, 대학생: 39명; 남자: 60명, 여자: 71명). 연구 결과를 알아보기 위하여 다층분석을 실시하였다. 성별과 세 연령집단 모두 얼굴이 앳될수록, 부드러울수록 매력적으로 평가하였다. 한편 성별과 연령에 따른 매력 정도의 차이가 있었다. 대학생이 초등학생과 중학생보다 매력을 더 높게 평가하였고 남자보다 여자가 동일한 사진을 더 매력적으로 평가하였다. 또한 대학생과 초등학생 간의 ‘날카롭다/부드럽다' 차원의 평가가 유의미하게 달랐으며, 이는 대학생보다 초등학생에게 ‘날카롭다/부드럽다' 차원이 얼굴매력 평정에 더 크게 영향을 미치는 것으로 해석된다. 본 연구 결과는 얼굴이 앳될수록, 부드러울수록 얼굴을 매력적이라고 판단하지만, 감성차원이 매력에 미치는 효과가 성별과 연령에 따라 차이가 있음을 시사한다. The aim of this study was to find whether the perception of facial attractiveness is influenced by gender, age and kinds of affective dimensions(sharp/soft, babyish/mature). In the study the participants (48 elementary school students, 44 middle school students, 39 university students comprised of 60 males and 71 females) were shown the photos of sixty female faces and asked to grade each face on a nine point scale in three different dimensions (sharp/soft, babyish/mature, attractive/unattractive). Results using Multi-level analysis, faces that were babyish and soft were perceived as more attractive regardless of gender and age. But differences were found in the strength of facial attractiveness by gender and age. Two groups (elementary school students and middle school students) perceived the same photos of female faces to be less attractive than the university students. Also, male participants perceived the faces to be less attractive than female participants. Moreover the study showed a significant difference between university students and elementary school students in relation to the sharp/soft dimension and this dimension was more influential on elementary school students than university students. These results further suggest that if a face looks babyish and soft, then the face will be perceived as attractive regardless of gender or age. However, the degree of facial attractiveness perceived depends on the participant``s gender and age.