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China has a long history of maritime affairs and never stopped researching the oceans. After reforming and opening up, China has witnessed a great change in economy, science, medicine, military etc. The commencement of “the 600 anniversary of Zheng He's voyages” in 2005 and the release of “The Rise of the Great Powers” in 2006 had aroused a widespread concern in the country, which has shown the review of history is extremely popular and beneficial. This paper aims to discover the secrets from the process of the Zheng He's voyages described in a book named “SanBao’s Expedition to the Western Ocean”, and explain its significance for the present economy, sea power, and marine consciousness development, meanwhile, to comprehensively show the remolding image of Zheng He and other characters in the historical background. “SanBao’s Expedition to the Western Ocean”, one hundred chapters to a total of two volumes, was published in the Ming Dynasty (1598). After many years’ compiling, the book described a story about Zheng He, who did not fear the danger to go to the Western. With the help of the Jinbi peak Zen master and Zhang Taoist master, Zheng He slayed demons, offered amnesty to minorities and hunted treasures. In the real history, the expedition to the western ocean was completed by Zheng He and Wang Jinghong. Novels are different from the history, the main reason is problem in the era of the author. It is the late Ming Dynasty, when everything was declining, foreign aggression was increasing and who wanted to complete a similar voyage alone is impossible. The author edited this novel to recall the prosperous period of the Ming Dynasty and criticize that present time. The book embodied the author's ideas about loyalty, Taoism and marine consciousness etc. This paper first explained the author, the book, and the historical period to analyze the reason of establishing the image of Zheng He. Through describing Zheng He's image, this paper reflected the China's political, cultural and people's thoughts in that era.
It is important that the surgeons expect difference in the volume of the maxillary sinus during endoscopic surgery because a variation in volume of the maxillary sinus is related to a variation in anatomical landmarks. Forty four Korean skulls (88 sinuses, 23 M/21F) were used in this study. Anatomical landmarks around the maxillary sinus were measured. The significant variables (r¤0.03, P⁄0.05) out of measured variables were pick out by use of SPSS-13.0 program. The regression equation models were developed by multiple regression analysis. The volume of maxillary sinus showed a high correlation with 19 variables included the width, height, depth of the maxillary sinus, depth on C-arm radiography, length of three borders of maxillary sinus, distance between the lowest point of orbit and the deepest point of maxillary sinus, distance between the deepest point of maxillary sinus and the porion, width of orbit, measured values from akanthion. The regression equation model for prediction of the volume of the maxillary sinus was volume=0.692×(the anteroposterior length of the maxillary sinus)+0.355×(the height of the maxillary sinus)-22.178. This study ascertained variables of a high correlation with volume of the maxillary sinus and would be useful to develop the regression model for prediction of volume of the maxillary sinus. 위턱굴 부피의 변화는 주변 해부학적 표지 구조물의 위치변화와 밀접한 관련이 있기 때문에 위턱굴 내 시경 수술시 위턱굴의 부피를 예측하여 주변 구조물의 위치를 미리 숙지하는 것이 필요하다. 고정된 한국인 시신 44구(남자 23구, 여자 21구, 평균나이 67.7세)의 머리뼈 88쪽을 대상으로 하여 위턱굴 주변 구조물들을 계측하여 위턱굴의 부피와의 상관관계를 구한 다음 의미있는 항목(r¤0.03, p⁄0.05)을 가려 부피추정 위턱굴의 부피는 위턱굴의 너비, 높이, 길이와 위턱굴 세 벽의 길이, 눈확아래지점과 위턱굴 가장 깊은점 사이의 거리, 위턱굴 가장 깊은점과 귀구멍점 사이의 거리, 눈확의 너비, 앞코가시점을 중심으로 계측한 변인들을 포함한 19항목들과 높은 상관관계를 보였다. 이러한 설명력이 높은 변인들을 독립변수로 하고 위턱굴의 부피를 종속변수 로 하여 다중회귀분석으로 추정식을 산출한 결과, 그 식은 부피=-22.178+0.692×(위턱굴실측 앞뒤길이)+0.355 ×(위턱굴 높이)이며 설명력(R2)은 0.759이었다. 본 연구에서는 위턱굴의 부피와 상관관계가 높은 주변 구조물들을 확인하여 내시경 수술시 위턱굴의 부피 예 측에 필요한 추정식을 제시한 것으로 생각된다.
Objectives: Some studies have suggested that lumbar spine and hip bone mineral density (BMD) are not associated with distal radius fractures (DRF), and a few studies have investigated regional BMDs at the fracture site, not just the lumbar or hip. We correlated distal radius BMD with DRF in postmenopausal women <60 years old. Methods: A total of 121 women ≥50 years old with DRF were enrolled in the fracture group, and 72 women without fractures were included as a control group. We measured distal radius BMD in the distal radius contralateral to the fractured bone in the fracture group and that of the lumbar body 5 days after the trauma. BMDs at the distal radius of each group were compared in three age groups (50~59, 60~69, and ≥70 years). Age- and site-specific BMDs were analyzed in each group. Results: No significant differences in the rate of osteoporosis at the distal radius or lumbar spine were observed in patients ≥60 years old. However, BMD and T-score values of the distal radius in female patients were lower than those in controls <60 years old. BMD and T-score values of the distal radius were lower than those of the lumbar spine in the fracture group <60 years old. BMD of the distal radius also carried a higher relative risk. Conclusions: Low BMD of the distal radius was an indicator of regional BMD and could be a sensitive risk factor for DRF in women <60 years.
Roof impingement occurs when the tibial tunnel is anterior to the slope of the intercondylar roof in the maximally extended knee. The tibia1 location of the graft must be correct so that it will allow full range of motion with no impingement, and anterior stability, all of which can be checked and assumed intraoperatively. The purpose of this study is to determine the ideal tibial placement of the graft without an impingement in order to avoid graft stretch-out and flexion contractures by reviewing the cases of the ACL reconstruction retrospectively. Twelve anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions took a magnetic scan of the ACL graft one year after the operation. Seven impingement-free grafts had a low magnetic resonance signal from the origin to the insertion. Five impinged grafts had an increesed magnetic resonance signal confined to the distal two thirds of the graft. The location of the tibial tunnel was determined from a lateral roentgenogram. An MR study of the normal ACL insertion of normal knees showed that the center of tibial attachment site was 35.3 % (20.4 mm) from the anterior edge of the tibial plateau. When the tibial tunnel was centered within a 6.2 mm impingernent-free zone (21.0 ∼ 27.2 mm from the anterior edge of the tibia), the knees were more stable and full extension was obtained. In conclusion, the ideal center of the tibial tunnel in ACL reconstruction is the site 1.9 mm posterior to the center of the original ACL insertion.
This study conducted a 12-week dance sport program three times a week in middle-aged obese women in order to examine its effects on the change of body composition, blood lipid, leptin and provide the women with basic materials on an exercise prescription for their healthy and happy life. The difference before and after exercise was tested using paired-t test. AVCOVA was used to test the difference in modified mean value by group for the post-test under the control of pre-test. Finally the following results were obtained. 1. The change of blood lipid was found to have a statistically significant difference in total cholesterol and triglyceride(p<.001). There was a statistically significant difference in high density lipoprotein cholesterol(p<.01) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol(p<.05). 2. The change of leptin was found to have a statistically significant difference(p<.01). In conclusion, as a result of conducting the 12-week dance sport program in middle-aged obese women, effective increase and decrease were found in body composition, blood lipid, and letpin. It is considered that middle-aged obese women should participate in active programs such as dance sport program rather than excessive or boring exercises. It is recommended for more effective obesity management program that further study conducts a dance sport program and a dietary cure at the same time.