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Objectives: This study was performed to analyze the single dose toxicity of Chukyu (spine-healing) pharmacopuncture. Methods: All experiments were conducted at the Biotoxtech, an institution authorized to perform non-clinical studies under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) regulations. Sprague-Dawley rats were chosen for the pilot study. Doses of Chukyu (spine-healing) pharmacopuncture, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mL, were administered to the experimental groups, and a dose of normal saline solution, 1.0 mL, was administered to the control group. This study was conducted under the approval of the Institutional Animal Ethic Committee. Results: No deaths or abnormalities occurred in any of the four groups. No significant changes in weight, hematological parameters or clinical chemistry between the control group and the experimental groups were observed. To check for abnormalities in organs and tissues, we used microscopy to examine representative histological sections of each specified organ; the results showed no significant differences in any of the organs or tissues except in one case, where interstitial infiltrating macrophages were found in one female rat in the 0.5-mL/animal experimental group. Conclusion: The above findings suggest that treatment with Chukyu (spine-healing) pharmacopuncture is relatively safe. Further studies on this subject are needed to yield more concrete evidence.
The active form of vitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (aVD3), is known to exert beneficial effects in the treatment of autoimmune diseases because of its immunosuppressive effects. However, clinical application of aVD3 remains limited because of the potential side effects, particularly hypercalcemia. Encapsulation of aVD3 within biodegradable nanoparticles (NPs) would enhance the delivery of aVD3 to antigen presenting cells, while preventing the potential systemic side effects of aVD3. In the present study, polymeric NPs containing ovalbumin (OVA) and aVD3 (NP[OVA+aVD3]) were prepared via the water-in-oil-in-water double emulsion solvent evaporation method, after which their immunomodulatory effects were examined. Bone marrow-derived immature dendritic cells (DCs) treated with NP(OVA+aVD3) did not mature into immunogenic DCs but were converted into tolerogenic DCs, which express low levels of co-stimulatory molecules and MHC class II molecules, produce lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines while increasing the production of IL-10 and TGF-β, and induce the generation of Tregs. Intravenous injection with NP(OVA+aVD3) markedly suppressed the generation of OVA-specific CTLs in mice. Furthermore, OVA-specific immune tolerance was induced in mice orally administered with NP(OVA+aVD3). These results show that biodegradable NPs encapsulating both antigen and aVD3 can effectively induce antigen-specific immune suppression.
Purpose To provide an optimized strategy for balance rehabilitation training, we identified the change of joint angles in lower-extremity and trajectory of center of body mass (COM) in response to rotation of base plate of balance training equipment. Methods Following Institutional Review Board approval, seven healthy participants with no sign of musculoskeletal pathology (gender: 7male, 25.5±1.7 years). Using customized balance rehabilitation training equipment, rotations were applied to participant's standing. The participant's four dynamic rotations induced by rotation of base plate were anterior-posterior (AP), right diagonal (RD), medialateral (ML), and left diagonal (LD). At the same time, by using an eight infrared camera-based three-dimensional motion capture system (T-10s; VICON Motion System Ltd., UK), the participant's lower-extremity joint angles and COM trajectory were measured. Results With the participant's four dynamic rotation, AP and ML dynamic rotation of subjects showed high trajectory of COM deviation compared with another dynamic rotation (p<0.05). We also confirmed different changes of the joint angles in the lower extremity were induced overall (p<0.05). Conclusions These results indicate that optimizing the rotation of base plate for balance training, considering characteristics of changes of COM trajectory and joint angle, can lead to effective for improving balance ability in the elderly. However, additional tests with various speed and angular ranges of the base plate's rotation are need to be conducted, as well as analysis of balance characteristics considering muscle activity, for a more accurate strategy of optimizing the rotation control of the base plate.
Multiple studies investigated the correlation between balance and sports performance. Few studies, however, investigated control strategies for base plate rotational perturbation on balance training equipment to maximize balance-training efficiency. Thus, this study analyzed human responses by varying base plate rotational perturbations and provided fundamental data for strategy to maximize balance-training efficiency. Base plate rotation was controlled to induce dynamic rotational perturbations in the anteriorposterior (AP), right-diagonal (RD), medial-lateral (ML) and left-diagonal (LD) directions. A three-dimensional motion-capture, pedar flexible insoles and wireless surface electromyography systems were used. The joint angles, balance indices and muscle activations and co-contractions were significantly different in response to the dynamic rotational perturbations (p < 0.05). The joint angle and balance index changes were greater with AP and ML dynamic rotational perturbations than those in others (p < 0.05). In AP dynamic rotational perturbation, vastus lateralis and soleus activations were generally higher than those of other muscles (p < 0.05). Biceps femoris activation was particularly the highest in ML dynamic rotational perturbation. In conclusion, this study identified that specialized human responses occurred based on the base plate rotational perturbation characteristics on balancetraining equipment. These findings indicate that it may be necessary to control the base plate rotational perturbations corresponding to the sport characteristics.
This study examined the feasibility of using an automatic lens distortion correction (ALDC) camera as the payload for a photogrammetric unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system. First, lens distortion for the interior orientation (IO) parameters was estimated. Although previous studies have largely ignored decentering distortion, this study revealed that more than 50% of the distortion of the ALDC camera was caused by decentering distortion. Second, we compared the accuracy of bundle adjustment for camera calibration using three image types: raw imagery without the ALDC option; imagery corrected using lens profiles; and imagery with the ALDC option. The results of image triangulation, the digital terrain model (DTM), and the orthoimage using the IO parameters for the ALDC camera were similar to or slightly better than the results using self-calibration. These results confirm that the ALDC camera can be used in a photogrammetric UAV system using only self-calibration.
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본 논문에서는 교통상황을 실시간으로 반영하여 최적의 이동경로를 제공하는 적응형 내비게이션 시스템을 제안한다. 본 시스템 은 세 가지 요소로 구성되어있다. 첫 번째로 도로교통망 중 한 구획의 도로상황정보를 수집하고 공유하는 Traffic Control Center (TCC). 두 번째로 개별적인 도로나 교차로에 설치되어 차량으로부터 도로상황정보를 수집하는 Road Side Unit(RSU). 마지막으로 차량들 간의 망 형성을 위해서 사용되는 Dedicated Short Range Communications(DSRC)를 기반으로 차량에 설 치된 단말기가 있다. DSRC를 기반으로 RSU와의 통신하는 단말기는 실시간 도로교통정보를 기반으로 운전자에게 최적의 경로 를 제공한다. 이동속도와 같은 교통정보는 단말기에서 측정되고, RSU로 전송된다. RSU는 이 정보를 처리하여 해당 도로의 도 로상황지수를 생성하고, 주기적으로 TCC에 전송한다. TCC는 RSU로부터 도로상황지수를 통합하여 TCC의 관할 구획의 모든 차량에 대해 도로교통정보를 만든다. 마지막으로 단말기는 효율적인 경로안내를 위해 최적의 경로를 도출하여 운전자에게 제공 한다. 따라서 단말기, RSU, TCC간의 상호작용을 통해 AINS는 동적인 교통상황(정체, 교통사고 등)을 기반으로 새로운 형태의 적응형 지능 내비게이션을 제공할 수 있다.
Little information is available about the characteristics in revolution gait of hemiplegic elderly, which is frequently represented in daily life. It is also hard to elucidate purely the characteristics due to hemiplegia because of no consideration of aging factors. The aim of study is to identify the alteration characteristics of lower extremity joint angles in both straight and revolution gaits together due to hemiplegia through comparing healthy with hemiplegic elderly. Following Institutional Review Board approval, twelve healthy and hemiplegic elderly were participated and the center of body mass (COM) and lower extremity joint angles were measured during straight and revolution gaits using a computer-aided video motion capture system. The results showed that the gait characteristics were generally altered in both straight and revolution gaits due to hemiplegia (p < 0.05). The gait characteristics were then different between the straight and revolution gaits each other. This study may be valuable by identifying for the first time the alterations of the lower extremity joint angles in both straight and revolution gaits due to pure hemiplegia through comparing healthy elderly with hemiplegic elderly.