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Platycodon (Platycodon grandiflorum) is used as a food and medicinal ingredient worldwide, particularly in Northeast Asia. Although a large number of studies have been conducted to determine its medicinal efficacy, there is still a paucity of literature summarizing the clinical activity of Platycodon. In this systematic review, we aimed to summarize the clinical efficacy of Platycodon. All literature describing the clinical efficacy of Platycodon was collected from international databases, and relevant papers were carefully evaluated for eligibility. Data were extracted from the selected papers and quality evaluation was conducted in accordance with the standards provided by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), with all procedures being conducted in accordance with PRISMA 2009 checklist guidelines. After the removal of 342 papers, 644 studies were fully screened for their titles and abstracts, among which, 19 studies were finally selected for full summarization. Extraction of data indicated evidence of the effectiveness of Platycodon in the treatment of respiratory system-related diseases and cancer, and in the provision of immunity. However, we found that the quality and objectivity of evaluation, management of variable factors, sample size, and reproducibility were generally poor. Although Platycodon has shown potential antiviral, antibacterial, anticancer, and antidepressant effects, and promotion of immunity in clinical settings, it was not possible to integrate objective indicators to conduct a meta-analysis due to the lack of literature and insufficient studies. More investigations in the clinical setting should be conducted to confirm the functional effects of Platycodon.
The study analyzed the distribution of mamalia pe r altitude in Gamebong, the highest trail ofJuwangsan National Park and confirmed the inhabitation of 22 different species inhabiting in the park. Starting from 200 m to 800 m above the sea level was segmented into 100 m unit. The result of analysis has shown that the Tamias sibiricus is the dominant specie throughout in all segments. Species confirmed to be inhabiting in all segments of research areas were Mustela sibirica, Caproelus pygargus and squirel. By analyzing the confirmed Field Sign basing from the observation point, it has shown close relations between types of species and population following the increase in altitude (y=-0.0234X + 25.552, R2=0.9296, F0.05(1, 4)=7.71, p<0.05). However, the result of analysis targeting nine species inhabiting in at least five out of six 100 m segmented units has shown that only two species, Apodemus agrarius (y=-0.034X+25.2, R2=0.905, F0.05(1, 4)=38.169, p<0.01) and Sciurus vulgaris (y=-0.0154X + 12.819, R2=0.781, F0.05(1, 4)=14.270, p<0.05) were affected by the altitude. Therefore, it is judged that the distribution of species does not follow the altitude variation but follows the food conditions and the structure of habitat. The result of analysis of Box and Whisker Diagram had shown lowest quartile deviation(QU-QL ~300 m above the sea level, where hikers are prohibited from entering. In 500~600 m above the sea level segment that has similar food environment and trail, it has shown the widest distribution. Further research is required on this segment for the excretion drops of Prionailurus bengalensis, a Grade II class of endangered species, were found on the trails.
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Purpose: Witten/Herdecke University, Germany, is the only private medical school and university that has offered a wide range of new curricula in the early age of innovation in medical education. The aim of the study is to review how the educational goal of this institution is realized in its curriculum. Methods: Descriptive study of the educational goal, foundation history, and structure of Witten- Herdecke University’s curriculum, as well as its organizational style, through analysis of the literature and publications. Results: Witten/Herdecke University provides an integrated education that ranges from medicine and music therapy to economics and art. This structure is intended to ensure that students receive the broadest education possible to build their own humanity. The results of its innovative education have been recognized as admirable in recent objective publications. Conclusion: Through its curriculum, Witten/Herdecke University uses a unique approach in educating its students to become sentient, compassionate human beings. Their program shows us that the direction of innovative medical education in recent decades is justified.
Background: As the importance of the teaching professionalism has become moreemphasized in medical education, the Korean medical educators are trying to introduce and revise new learning materials concerning to the professionalism. The purpose of this study is to analyze the transition of curricula subjects related to the medical professionalism in Korean Medical Schools. Method: A search for the learning subjects was done by reviewing the 'Korean Medical Education Guide' from 1998 to present. Subject titles relating to the medical professionalism and the time allocation of these subjects in lectures and laboratories of the 41 Korean Medical Schools were identified. The annual increasing rate of related subjects, the discrepancy of medical schools according to the established year, the discrepancy of student enrollments and the location of the school, and the rate of difference between public and private schools were analyzed. Result: Subjects containing the content of the medical professionalism in 1998/99 were twenty- eight. There was a rapid increase in the introduction of the professionalism as a curriculum year by year. Although the private medical schools outnumber the publics, there was no significant difference between them in the number of established subjects. But schools with fewer students had more programs relating professionalism than the schools with higher enrollments. This may be understood as a reflection that the relatively newly established schools with fewer students are more ready to be adapted to the curriculum reform than old big medical schools. Conclusion: The results show that there is a rapid growth of subjects relating medical professionalism in the curriculua of Korean medical schools. This study has mainly focused on analyzing the current subject constellation in the curricula, so that a further study about the curriculum content and its teaching method is required.