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콩명나방(Maruca vitrata, 포충나방과)은 국내에서 Vigna속 작물들(팥, 녹두, 동부)과 세스바니아의 주요 해충으로 알려져 있는데, 국내에서의 생활사는 전혀 알려지지 않았다. 이에 콩명나방이 수원 지방에서 월동한 후 처음 발생하는 시기를 알기 위해 반야외 조건에서 인공사육 하였고, 월동율을 조사하였다. 9월 하순부터 야외에서 사육한 갓부화 유충은 그 해와 이듬해에 우화하지 못했고, 이전 해의 유충과 번데기는 모두 사망하였다. 겨울 중 번데기 보관방법을 달리하거나, 용화처를 제공하였을 때도 월동 후 우화한 개체는 발견하지 못했다. 야외 혹은 실내 사육(25, 16℃)에서 용화한 번데기를 일정 기간 저온(13, 10℃)에 처리한 후 다시 25℃에서 발육시켰을 때, 우화한 개체는 없었다. 이상의 결과로부터 콩명나방은 저온에 적응하는 능력이 매우 떨어지는 것으로 추정되었고, 수원 지방에서 월동할 수 없을 것으로 짐작되었다.
Three lepidopteran insect pests of the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), the soybean pod worm, Matsumuraeses phaseoli (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and an Ostrinia spp. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) attacking adzuki bean, Vigna angularis, were confirmed as the major insect pests during the reproductive developmental stage of adzuki bean, and M. vitrata existed dominantly. Almost all plants in the adzuki bean field were in jured by at least one of the three species, and 15~60% of reproductive organs were injured. Unbloomed inflorescence occurred continuously through the reproductive stage of adzuki bean. While the flower was many at the early stage and its number soon decreased, the pod was few at the early stage, but its number increased soon and maintained at a constant level. The results suggested that the adzuki bean injured by insect pests compensate the flower loss by developing new inflorescence, but the compensation do not cause the development of new pods. While M. vitrata and M. phaseoli were observed in flowers, pods and stem mainly during the first half of reproductive stage of adzuki bean, Ostrinia spp. was observed only in pods and stem during the second half. In addition, while all instars of larvae of M. vitrata were observed, larvae between the third and fifth instars for M. pahseoli and Ostrinia spp. were observed.
Soybean seed injury was analyzed in the experiments in which the bean bug, Riptortus pedestris(Hemiptera: Alydidae), was released into screen-caged pots containing full seed stage(R6) of soybean. When the different stages of insects, from the 3rd instar nymphs to adults, were released into pots during 8 days in soybean R6 stage, soybean seeds with injury marks (B-type seeds) increased. The weight reduction ratio in B-type seeds was highest in the injury by the 5th instar nymphs, while the daily-produced number ratio of B-type seeds was small in the treatment. In the injury by the different number of adult released into pots, 4, 8, 16 adults caused a significant increase of B-type seeds, while 16 adults caused the significant increase of the deformed (C-type) seeds. In the injury by the different release period of adults, the total number of pods was not significantly different among treatments, while the total seed number harvested was significantly small in the release for 48 days. The release for 8 and 16 days caused a significant increase of B-type seeds, while the release for 48 days caused the increase of C-type seeds. The results indicated that injury of soybean R6 stage by the bean bug produced soybean seeds with distinct injury marks at relatively low density and during short term attack period, while it produced deformed seeds at high density and during long attack period.
We investigated the induction of pupal diapause and number of generation for H. armigera using outdoor rearing and sex pheromone trapping in Suwon, Korea. Over-wintering pupae were induced when neonate larvae were reared in the outdoors from late Aug. to early Oct. in 2013 and 2014. H. armigera adults emerged from late May to early Jun. for 2013 colonies and from late May to late Jun. for 2014 colonies. The colonies placed after mid September produced only diapause pupae, to show environmental conditions that day-lengths on the rearing start date were 11 h 49 min~12 h 24 min, and mean temperatures before pupation were 14.8~20.7℃. Summer diapause was not observed in all colonies. The peak occurrence of H. armigera adults from sex pheromone trap in Suwon and Hwaseong were pooled and showed four generations (1st: from late Apr. to mid Jun., 2nd: from mid Jun. to late Jul., 3rd: from mid Jul. to late Aug., 4th: from late Aug. to mid Oct.). A degree-day model for development of H. armigera developed by Mironidis and Savopoulou-Soultani (2008) was used to validate the number of generation from field observations using pheromone traps. The 3rd and over-wintering generations were mainly overlapped. It was decided that H. armigera has one over-wintering and three complete generations in a year, and diapause is induced from offsprings of the 3rd and 4th generations adults. It is expected that larvae of the 1st and 2nd generations give a damage to ear zone in maize fields in which have been planted during April. 야외 사육과 성페로몬트랩 조사를 통해 왕담배나방 휴면 유도시기와 연중 발생 세대가 연구되었다. 2013년과 2014년에 갓부화 유충을 수원 야외에서 사육하였을 때, 8월 하순~10월 상순에 사육을 시작한 집단들에서 휴면용이 생성되었고, 9월 중순 이후 사육 집단에서는 휴면용들만생성되었다. 2013년 집단의 경우 휴면용들은 이듬해 5월 하순~6월 상순에 우화하였고 2014년 집단의 경우 5월 하순~6월 하순에 우화하였다. 휴면용들만 생성된 집단들에서, 사육을 시작한 날의 일장은 11시간 49분~12시간 24분이었고, 이들이 번데기가 될 때까지 평균온도는 14.8~20.7℃ 이었다. 야외 사육에서 하면은 관찰되지 않았다. 수원과 화성에서 2010년부터 2014년까지 조사한 페로몬 트랩의 성충 발생 시기는 연중 4회(1화기: 4월 하순~6월 중순, 2화기: 6월 중순~7월 하순, 3화기: 7월 중순~8월 하순, 4화기: 8월 하순~10월 중순)으로 조사되었다. 여기에 Mironidis and Savopoulou-Soultani (2008)의 선형발육모델을 적용하였을 때 4세대 출현이 가능한 것으로 분석되었다. 가을철 3세대와 월동세대는 일부중첩되는 것으로 조사되었다. 왕담배나방은 연중 월동세대 이후 온전한 3세대를 거치고, 휴면용은 3화기와 4화기 성충들의 자손들에서 출현하는것으로 조사되었다. 마지막으로 4월 말 파종되는 옥수수 포장에서 출사기에서 수확기 사이의 이삭 피해는 1세대와 2세대의 왕담배나방 유충이 피해를 주는 것으로 고찰되었다.
Two lepidopteran species, Matsumuraeses phaseoli (Matsumura) and Maruca vitrata (syn. M. testulalis) (Fabricius) were reared on artificial diets, and analyzed in their developmental characteristics. Photoperiod was supplied with 16L/8D for M. phaseoli and with 13L/11D for M. vitrata, respectively. Both species passed five larval instars with discrete sizes of head capsule width. In a constant environment (25℃ and 65%RH), the developmental period of M. phaseoli egg, larva and pupa was 3.9, ca. 16.0 and 8.9 days, respectively, and over 80% of M. phaseoli larvae could develop into pupae, most of which emerged into adults. Newly laid eggs could be stored at 5℃ for 15 days with over 50% hatchability. Similar developmental traits were shown in M. vitrata. However, a low temperature preservation was not applicable to M vitrata eggs.
- SF6 gas circuit breakers are widely used for short circuit current interruption in EHV(Extra High Voltage) or UHV(Ultra High Voltage) power systems. To develop SF6 gas circuit breakers, the arc resistance value is necessary to compare experimental results to numerical ones. The arc resistance value can be obtained from a breaking test with a SF6 gas circuit breaker. The direct testing or synthetic testing facility is widely used to verify the breaking ability for SF6 gas circuit breakers. We employed the simplified synthetic testing facility to test a SF6 gas circuit breaker prototype. The arc resistance characteristic was measured and calculated under the various experimental conditions. This arc resistance value can be used for verifying the numerical results from arc simulation in a circuit breakers.