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This paper studied the pessimistic narration of Ye Zhao-Yan, Su-Tong, Kim Young-Ha novel from the viewpoint of three categories such as ruined family history, death and female. In ruined family history, this paper explained that Ye Zhao-Yan and Su-Tong are representative novelists who described the ruined history in Chinese literary circle of the 90s. That history was reduced to the family history. Ye Zhao-Yan described the downfall of Confucian scholar or nobleman, while Su-Tong described the downfall of subaltern. Ye Zhao-Yan novel had more the majority narration and historicity than Su-Tong. The family of Kim Young-Ha novel was a mere group of a solitary individual who lacked family affection. In death, this paper explained that the characters of Ye Zhao-Yan, Su-Tong novel died suddenly as well as frequently. The common feature of their death was the fortuity, destiny and futility. However, the death of Ye Zhao-Yan novel was related to a historical event, while that of Su-Tong novel was not. The death of Kim Young-Ha novel was quite different from both of them. The character of Kim Young-Ha novel could choose the time and way to die making death transferred from God realm to human realm. This kind of death not only was contrary to death drive but also had the meaning of sanctuary of life. In female, this paper researched that Ye Zhao-Yan and Su-Tong put a lot of effort into making women image as the last writer of southern region. The females of Ye Zhao-Yan novel had Confucian traditional women image or became corrupt from traditional virtue, while the females of Su-Tong novel made the males corrupt by means of their own desire as voluptuous, cruel women image. The females of Kim Young-Ha novel had an experience of juvenile deviation. They were placed in a mental state of low self-confidence and in a fundamental depressive state deprived of all desire. They were not only minorities but also the others of male. Consequently, suicide became the sole action to be able to enhance the value of themselves. Although all of Ye Zhao-Yan, Su-Tong, Kim Young-Ha wrote the pessimistic narration in the aspect of ruined family history, death and female, they had their own distinct feature.
This paper mainly studied the ‘desire-salvation' related structure which appeared in Hong-Ying's novel K and Ananda . Although K and Ananda are the novels which subject is desire, there are differences in the shape of desire and the process of salvation. The desire of novel K is an illicit love affair which sex instinct takes precedence. The desire of novel Ananda is that love itself degenerates into deformed love, though the love is approved by morals. The process of salvation from these desire also shows up the differences. Regarding K , it is the process of salvation that the extramarital affair of main character changes into love. Regarding Ananda , it is the process of salvation that the corruption of main character returns to innocence by death. Why these process of salvation have to be gone through? How these process mean a salvation? As to K , analyzed it making use of the ‘Instinct and Instinct-Change' theory of Sigmund Freud. As to Ananda , analyzed it making use of the ‘Death Instinct'theory of Sigmund Freud which is mentioned in ‘Beyond the Pleasure Principle'.
This paper has studied the city space of HongKong expressed in Liu Yi-chang's novel The Drinker. In the power and transference of city space, this paper studied that while main character narrator barely occupied a single rented room in HongKong space, natives―colonial subject who oppressed him occupied the city center in HongKong. The space itself which the narrator occupied as a grotty bedsit indicated that he was a marginal person and immigrant of HongKong. The city space of HongKong was divided hierarchically from city center to suburb, depending on payment capacity about space value. In the sexual desire of city space, this paper studied that the sexual desire of main character narrator exposed a highly contradictory aspect in his capacity as a intellectual who internalized urban sophistication and culture. His sexual tendency could correspond to ‘the separation between affectionate current and sensual current' of S. Freud's sexual theory. Actually, his contradictory sexual tendency allegorized the contradictory situation of HongKong city. In the resistance to social structure of consumption at city space, this paper insisted that novel The Drinker had the features and attributes of early version of urban novel after literature commercialization. Among the space of consumption, a bar was the space which not only had the effect of city phantasmagoria of W. Benjamin, but also exposed the social structure of consumption of HongKong city symbolically. The narrator resisted against social structure of consumption just in this place. The method was to abuse himself and to withdraw into the inner world of himself.
This paper has studied the new full-length novel Yellow Sparrow by Su-Tong focused on the change of Xiangchunshu street. Contrary to its name, Xiangchunshu street was the poor, humble, dirty and decaying street. Because this street had got the childhood memory of Su-Tong, the novel set in this street was almost coming of age novel. However Yellow Sparrow was different from the past coming of age novel. Not only this new novel did not describe the gang fight or violence which past coming of age novel appeared frequently, but also the feature of Xiangchunshu street itself changed. Xiangchunshu street of this work changed from the small, dirty and humble street to clean and spacious street to commercial district with full of shops. This space was changed to the space which writer Su-Tong revealed critical opinions on the phases of times. Therefore this paper studied the change of Xiangchunshu street from the viewpoint of the metaphor of soul loss, Chinese economic reform and mammonism, sin metaphor rope, sexual assault and murder. In the metaphor of soul loss chapter, the loss of soul meant that where human soul should be converted to in the acceleration of Chinese capitalism. It allegorized that human being not only became the slave of material but also lost the humanity in commodity society. In the Chinese economic reform and mammonism chapter, this paper explained that grandfather's action of digging a tree up was transformed into the movement of digging for gold. This paper explained not only that grandfather's room was changed into the boutique of Mr. Ma but also that the boutique was changed into the shop of nutritional supplement once again. In the sin metaphor rope, sexual assault and murder chapter, this paper explained that the wages of Xiannu's sin was that intake tower where she was sexually assaulted became both her starting point and ending point. This paper explained that although Liusheng had matured atoning for his wrong, the wages of his sin was death finally. Also explained that the rope which was Baorun's only hope made him fall into the bottomless pit on the contrary. 본고는 쑤퉁의 신작 장편소설『黃雀記』를 변화된 참죽나무 거리에 초점을 두어 고찰하였다. 쑤퉁소설에는 풍양나무 마을과 참죽나무 거리라는 두 가지 지리적 지표가 존재하는데, 전자는 포크너 소설의 가상공간 ‘요크나파토파'를 본떠 만든 완전한 허구의 공간이며 후자는 쑤퉁의 고향 쑤저우 거리를 소설 속에 재현한 가상의 공간이었다. 참죽나무 거리는 사뭇 그 명칭과 상반된 표리부동한 공간으로 가난하고 누추하고 불결하며 퇴락한 거리였다. 이 거리는 쑤퉁의 유년시절 기억을 담지하고 있기에, 이 거리를 배경으로 하는 소설은 성장소설이 대부분을 차지하고 있었다. 「刺青時代」·『城北地帶』가 그러했으며 『黃雀記』역시 예외가 아니었다. 하지만『黃雀記』는 그간 참죽나무 거리를 배경으로 한 성장소설과 그 성격을 달리하였는데, 그것은 예전 성장소설에서 많이 보였던 패싸움이나 폭력조직 등이 나타나지 않고 예전 성장소설과 달리 10년 후의 성숙한 성인이 된 모습도 서사하고 있다는 표면적인 차이보다도, 참죽나무 거리의 성격 자체가 변화한 점이었다. 이 작품에서 참죽나무 거리는 비좁고 불결하고 허름한 거리에서 깨끗하고 넓은 거리로, 상점이 가득한 상업지구로 변화하였다. 그리고 이 공간은 작가 쑤퉁이 시대상황에 대해 자신의 비판적 견해를 개진하는 공간으로 변화하였다. 그간 문혁을 시대적 배경으로 한 참죽나무계열 성장소설에서 쑤퉁은 당시 시대에 대한 비판이나 자신의 견해를 전혀 피력하지 않았었다. 소설서사에서 문혁이란 시대적 배경을 전혀 의식하지 못할 정도였다. 하지만『黃雀記』에서 참죽나무 거리는 작가 쑤퉁이 중국 현실상황과 시대에 대해 비판적 견해를 드러내는 공간으로, 현실참여의 공간으로 변화하였다. 쑤퉁은 변화된 참죽나무 거리를 통해 현실에 대한 관심과 현실에 개입하겠다는 의지를 분명히 드러내었다. 이에 본고는 참죽나무 거리의 변화를 혼 상실의 메타포, 개혁개방 조류와 배금주의, 죄악의 메타포 밧줄, 성폭행 그리고 살인으로 구분하여 고찰하였다.
This paper studied the narration feature of Su-Tong's novel from the viewpoint of comparing standard narration. Su-Tong fulfilled his own destruction desire and overturn desire in a novel writing, which exposed the subaltern narration, female narration and history narration. In subaltern narration, this paper proved that subaltern was not good, virtuous, honest but crooked, wicked by examining the WuLong of Rice, ChenMao of House of Poppy, delinquent boys of Area of North City, KeYuan of How Can Snake Fly. This paper not only compared them with XiangZi of LaoShe's novel Camel XiangZi as the standard narration of subaltern but also compared them with Liu ZhenYun's Days like Chicken Feathers regarding a gloomy future of subaltern. In female narration, this paper not only proved that woman was voluptuous, jealous, vicious, vain by examining the XiaoE of Cosmetics, JinLan of Area of North City but also proved that woman was the existence who relied on man by examining the SongLian of Wives and Concubines, Xian of Lady Life, XiaoE of Cosmetics. Proved that the female image of negative personality was originated from the resistance of Confucian tradition female image such as tenderness, beauty, goodness, maternal affection by examining Tang Dynasty novel Yingying's Biography. Proved that the female image of reliance existence was originated from the resistance of independent female image in Socialism literature by examining the YangMo's Song of Youth. In history narration, this paper proved that individual got out of the flow of history by examining the SongLian of Wives and Concubines, XiaoE of Cosmetics, Ms. Jiang of Escape of 1934, ChenMao and Liu ChenCao of House of Poppy, Analects of Confucius of My Emperor Life. Proved that Su-Tong's history narration was somewhat different from other new-history novel by examining the MoYan's Red Sorghum, which made the subject of history replace majority with minority. Proved that Su-Tong's history narration was originated from the resistance of standard history narration in which individual not only coincided exactly with the flow of history but also realized historical value, such as LuXun's A Madman's Diary, Medicine and LaoShe's Camel XiangZi. These aesthetic features of Su-Tong's novel narration had been accomplished by resisting the standard narration. The existing standard narration was a kind of authority discourse. It could be said that Su-Tong has accomplished his own aesthetic discourse resisting the authority discourse. There were three main field in which he defied the authority discourse. The first was a subaltern narration. The second was a female narration. The third was a history narration.
This paper started the question that the reason which Manchurian rural literature became a resistance literature and ethnic literature, was related to Russian. Thus this paper formulated three hypotheses as below; First, Manchurian writer was affected by Russian literature more than 5⋅4 literature. Second, Manchurian rural literature did not follow the genealogy of Chinese rural literature. Third, rural literature argument between Wencong and Yiwenzhi was not a conflictual argument based on patriotism narration. In the first hypothesis, this paper searched that Shanding, Wang Qiuying, Yichi were influenced by Russian literature. In the second hypothesis, this paper examined the context of Chinese rural literature according to Chen Jihui's History of China rural literature. China rural literature could be classified as Luxun style, Shen Congwen style and contemporary literature style. However Manchurian rural literature could not be analyzed by such categorization due to its complexity. In the third hypothesis, this paper indicated that Shanding declared the rural literature on the authority of Yiwenzhi group's novel, Guding did not dispute the core opinion of Shanding, actual argument point between Wencong and Yiwenzhi was the issue between art and life, a lot of members of Yiwenzhi group participated in the editor and contributor of journal Wenxuan, the ideology of literature of journal Wenxuan was similar to that of Guding. On the basis of above discussion, this paper concluded that the rural literature argument was described oppositively in a while because of the intervention of national ideology. As evidence for that, this paper compared the writing Liang Shanding's own story of year 1937 with that of 1991. It was concluded that while the rural literature argument discussed rural area of value neutrality, political authority injected ‘value' into the discourse forcibly.
本論文主要硏究莫言的成長過程與他的文學特点之一民間敍述的相關性. 其成長過程分爲`出生·學生時代`和`初登文壇`2個時間段. 第4章民間敍述說明成長過程中?一種因素對其民間敍述帶來影響. 筆者認爲莫言的成長過程就是一種跳出故鄕土地的過程. 同時認爲他的成長過程中形成民間敍述的因素就是文革期間在田野里放牛的經歷, 改變其對故鄕觀念的認識, 爲了脫離??和孤獨下了決心當作家的動機等3個因素. 爲了論證民間敍述的體現方式, 第5章里以莫言的中篇小說《三十年前的一次長?比賽》爲硏究對象, 考察這部小說中的民間敍述. 民間敍述中包含了右派分子的重新描寫和運動會兩個可能因素. 利用巴赫金的`慶典槪念`說明爲什?運動會是民間敍述.