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A number of authors in various fields have been much concerned with autism since Leo Kanner first described and named the syndrom in 1943. Recently it seemed to show that psychologists tended to be more interested in the syndrom than clinicians and a few investigators in neurophysiology and biochemistry have been concerned with a description of the condition, and a discussion of phathology. From ten years ago a number of works of treating autistic children by means of behavior modification procedures have been accumulated more and more. This study attemped to train for establishing functional speech through operant behavior modification techniques in a autistic echolalic child, and to be able to learn for himself social adjustment behaviors as increasing his communication skills. Subjects in this study was 13½ years old boy with a diagnosis of autism, and SQ of 42.13. He was immediately echolalic, occasionally exactly mimicking in form and imitation bits of conversation of the staff. The training was conducted from Apr. 14, 1980 to Jul. 24, and twice per day for about 30 min, four tines per week. The total time span of the study, exclusive of follow up, was approximately fifty days, The procedures were applied basic paradigms such as ; imitation training, shaping, fading in and fading out of prompts, extinction and time out, physical and fading out of prompts, extjnction and time out, physical and social reinforcement, and four distinct steps were required to establish functional speech as follow ; Step Ⅰ : naming training, Step Ⅱ : phrases training, Step Ⅲ : Sentences training, Step Ⅳ : Communication training. After the child had rearched criterion on the Step Ⅳ, the training terminated and 21days after conducted post-check on learned speech repertoire. Results of this study showed that during the baseline period echolalic responses of 97% decreased about 0, Correct responses as it is functional speech increased about 100% with acquiring almost 100 vocabularies over 50days' short term training. But after 21 days from the last training the post-check showed echolalic responses of 45%, correct responses of 44%. On the basis of these findings following conclusion can be made ; First, establishing functional speech in echolalic children can be trained through behavior modification techniques affectively. Second, autistic children are less transferable and retentive for learned behavior. Addition to these conclusion following suggestions can be made ; a, The training for establishing functional speech in echolalic children should be taken place earlier year. b, Speech training should be continued for a long period. c, To generate their acquiring speech with considerable ease home environment system needs to formalize as possible as training environment. d, Autjstic child should be included in speech therapy. e, Various speech training for autistic children should be investigated further more.
이 연구에서는 우리나라 장애학생 통합교육의 주요소들에 관하여 일반교육자들과 특수교육자들이 현재의 통합교육 실현상황과 향후 2010년 및 2020년대의 통합교육 변화양상에 대해 어떻게 인식하고 있는지를 알아보고자 델파이기법을 사용하여 조사하였다. 그 결과 대체적으로 일반교육자들과 특수교육자들은 장애학생 통합교육에 대해 2001년 현재의 실현상황 인식에 있어서는 약간의 차이가 나타났으나, 2010년대 및 2020년대의 변화양상과 실현가는성 예측에 있어서는 의의있게 큰 차이가 나타났는데, 전반적으로 특수교육자들이 일반교육자들에 비해 통합교육에 대하여 보다 적극적인 것으로 나타났다. 장애학생 통합교육을 효율적으로 실현하기 위해 이 연구의 결과에서 나타난 양 집단간의 인식의 차이를 어떻게 좁혀갈 것인가에 관한 연구가 다양하게 이루어지고 그에 따른 대책이 강구되어야 할 필요가 있다. One of the most controversial issues all special educators of Korea currently face is the extent of which students with disabilities who would be included in general education classrooms. The purpose of this study was to compare awareness of 20 general educators and 21 special educators regarding future major directions in the inclusive education of students with disabilities in Korea. The survey used the Delphi technique. Among the general topic areas of inclusive education of students with disabilities, 65 predictive statements were organized into six categories developed by penalists and the author. It was used in this survey. The results of the study were as follows: In the analysis of 6 categories, there were significant difference in awareness of the two groups regarding future directions in the inclusive education of students with disabilities. However, there were less difference in on current status of inclusive education than on the status of 10 or 20 years later. These results showed that special educators had more positive awareness than general educators on the inclusive education of students with disabilities. To promote inclusive education of students with disabilities, future research should be conducted diversely how to contract the differences between general and special educator's awareness on the inclusive education. Future researchers should also consider enlarging and enhancing educators' participation in implements inclusive education.
이 연구에서는 특수교사 양성체제의 주요소인 양성기관, 자격제도 및 양성과정에 대해 그 현황과 문제점을 알아봄과 아울러 외국의 특수교사 양성체제를 비교·분석하여 우리나라 특수교사 양성체제에 대한 구체적인 발전방향을 탐색하고자 하였다. 이러한 연구목적을 달성하기 위하여 관련 문헌을 수집·분석하고, 2001학년도 졸업생을 배출한 9개 대학 특수교육과 교육과정을 수집·분석하였다. 이 연구를 통해 도출된 결과들을 종합하여 특수교사 양성기관의 책무성과 인가기준 및 지역분배, 교사자격제도로서 특수교육대학원 운영규정의 명시와 치료·직업교육교사의 대학원수준 양성, 그리고 특수교사 양성과정에 대한 국가수준의 표준설정 및 교육실습의 다양화 등에 관련하여 우리나라 특수교사 양성체제의 발전방향을 제시하였다. The purpose of this study was to analyze current status with the problems of special teacher education institutes, certification systems, teacher education programs as major components of the Korean teacher education systems in special education, examine the teacher education systems of other countries, explore and suggest the policy measures needed for improving the teacher education systems in special education. To this purpose literature concerned and earlier studies were reviewed, 9 programs of special education teacher education university were analyzed. Through the results of this study, the improvements of the teacher education systems in special education were suggested as follows: 1. The responsibilities of the special teacher education institutes should be strengthened, the authoriztion of the teacher education institutes should be leveled up, and the institutes should be arranged national wide equally. 2. The role and functions of the graduate school of special education should be definited clearly and special education related teachers-speech therapy, physical therapy, occupational therapy, psycho-behavior therapy etc., and various vocational teachers should be educated at the level of the graduate school. 3. The standards of national level for special teacher education programs need to be established, instructional competency of subjects need to be strengthened, and should be increased the hours of field experinces and clinical practices.
이 연구에서는 장애학생 통합교육의 촉진과 개별화교육의 질 제고를 위하여 특수교육보조원제의 활용에 관해 선발과 교육,역할과 관리 등을 중심으로 효율적이고 체계적인 운영방안을 제시하고자 하였다. 이를 위해 문헌분석과 통합학급교사,특수학급교사,학부모 및 특수교육보조원을 대상으로 설문조사를 통해 현행 특수교육보조원제도의 운영실태를 분석하였다. 그 결과로 특수교육보조원제도에 대한 법적 근거의 미비, 특수교육보조원 역할의 불확실성,교사와 특수교육보조원 간의 협력 여건의 부재,특수교육보조원의 자질 부족,특수교육보조원에 대한 인식 및 홍보 부족 등이 문제점으로 도출되었다. 이와 같은 문제점을 토대로 장애학생의 통합교육을 촉진하고 개별화교육의 질 제고를 위한 특수교육보조원의 효율적인 활용을 위하여 여섯 가지 운영 방안과 정책 수립 방향을 제시하였다. The purpose of this study was to suggested the effective utilization of teacher assistants to provide the students with disabilities with more opportunities to be included in general clssrooms and to enhance the qualities of individualized special education, Specifically, this study focused on the selection, preservice, role and responsivilities of teacher assistants and supervision of them. To achieve this purpose, literature reviws related to teacher assistants in the inclusive education classrooms and participants for the survey on the current system of teacher assistants were 211 inclusive classroom teachers, 246 special classroom teachers, 172 parents of the students with disabilities and 212 teacher assistants. The problems of the current system of teacher assistants analyzed from the results of this study were as follows: incompleteness of legislation of teacher assistants, unclarification of the role and responsibilities, lack of coorpereration rules between teacher and teacher assistants, lack of training for teacher assistants, lack of recognition and information of teacher assistants' role and responsibilities. Based on the findings, six ways to effectively manage the system of teacher assistants both in inclusive classrooms and special education classrooms was suggested.