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The states of nature capture a capture a wide variety of factors that influence th future values of risky assets. Individuals must formulate judgments about payoffs under alternative future states of nature. From these state-contingent payoffs and market prices of securities, the prices of the underlying pure securities can be developed in a complete and perfect capital market. Given these pure security prices, the price of any other security can be determined from its state-contingent payoff vector. Conceptually, the equilibrium prices of the pure securities reflect the aggregate risk preferences of investors and investment opportunities of firms. Furthermore, The concept of a pure security facilitates analytical solutions to individuals' consumption/portfolio investment decision under uncertainty. The state-preference approach is a useful way of looking at firm investment decisions under uncertainly. In a perfect and complete capital market, the net present value rule was shown to be an optimal firm investment decision rule. State-preference theory also provides a conceptual basis for developing models for analyzing firm capital structure decisions and the pricing of option contracts. Thus the state-preference approach provides a useful way of thinking about finance problems both for the individual investor and for the corporate manager.
To pursue the overriding goal of a firm, wealth maximization to shareholders, a financial decision maker should strive to maximize the market value at the same time minimizing the cost of capital. The theory of capital structure is, therefore, based on the valuation of a firm and the estimation of the cost of capital. A number of studies habe dealt either directly or indirectly with the guestion of whether leverage affects the cost of capital and the valuation of a firm. The traditional presumption is that a firr's value is a concave function of its financial leverage. and that an optimal leverage and Miller, in their famous 1958 article, esfablish that the total value of the firm, in the absence of taxes, is independent of its capital structure. MM (1963) have shown further that a propotional corporate income tax provides sufficient economic incentive for firms to maximize their use of debt financing. In our world, however, to reap more of gains from leverage the stockholders must incur increasing risks of bankruptcy and the costs, direct and indirect, of falling into that unhappy state. The balancing of these bankruptcy costs against the tax gains of debt finance gives rise to an optimal capital structure, just as the traditional view has always maintained, though for somewhat different reasons. We do not, after all, observe firms with 100% debt in their capital structure as the original MM model suggest. Miller (1977) modifies this result by introducing personal as well as corporate taxes into the model. The implications of Miller's argument are that: (1) in eguilibrium, under a set o fairly realistic assumptions, there is no optimal leverage from the point of the firm, and (2) there may be an eguilibrium amount of aggregate debt outstanding in the economy which is determined by relative corporate and personal tax rates. Although no completely satisfactory theory has yet been found to explain the existence of optimal capital structure, casual empiricism suggests that firms behave as though it does exist. In fact because of capital market imperfections, the existence of bankruptcy costs, there might be such a thing as an optimal capital structure which contains both debt and equity.
SUMMARY This study tries to examine that the excess return of low-priced stocks shows the systematic difference from one of high-priced stocks. Sample periods are 24 months from January 1994 to December 1995. Using randomly-selected 120 stocks listed on the Korea Stock Exchange, the empirical results here show that the excess return of low-priced-stocks portfolio or high-priced-stocks portfolio is not statistically and economically significant. It is also shown that the average excess return of low-priced-stocks portfolio. And, it is confirmed that the cumulative excess returns of these portfolios do not show the systematic pattern of change. These empirical results do not stand together with the general belief that low-priced stocks have higher excess returns that high-priced stocks. The empirical evidences here may back the argument that it is not proper to deny the weak form efficiency of Korean stock market. This study tries to examine that the excess return of low-priced stocks shows the systematic difference from one of high-priced stocks. Sample periods are 24 months from January 1994 to December 1995. Using randomly-selected 120 stocks listed on the Korea Stock Exchange, the empirical results here show that the excess return of low-priced-stocks portfolio or high-priced-stocks portfolio is not statistically and economically significant. It is also shown that the average excess return of low-priced-stocks portfolio is not significantly higher than one of high-priced-stocks portfolio. And, it is confirmed that the cumulative excess returns of these portfolios do not show the systematic pattern of change. These empirical results do not stand together with the general belief that low-priced stocks have higher excess returns than high-priced stocks. The empirical evidences here may back the argument that it is not proper to deny the weak form efficiency of Korean stock market.
최근 한국항공우주연구원에서는 위성탑재컴퓨터의 성능향상 및 표준화에 대한 연구를 진행하여 LEON2 AT697F 프로세서를 탑재한 차세대 위성탑재컴퓨터를 개발하였다. 위성탑재컴퓨터의 정상동작을 검증하기 위해 프로세서 디버깅 및 모니터링 도구는 필수적이며, 이를 위해 Aeroflex사의 GRMON을 사용하고 있다. 하지만 GRMON은 LEON 프로세서의 일반적인 디버깅 기능만 제공하고, 특정 프로세서 및 주변장치에 대한 디버깅 기능을 지원하지 않으므로 사용에 제약이 있다. 이에 본 논문에서는 AT697F DSU(Debug Support Unit)를 이용하여 차세대 위성탑재컴퓨터를 위한 프로세서 모니터를 개발하였다. Recently KARI(Korea Aerospace Research Institute) conducted research for processor performance and standard on satellite OBC(On-Board Computer). So the NGSCB(Next Generation Spacecraft Computer Board) was developed by KARI. For verification of NGSCB functions, the processor debug and monitor is essential. So we are using GRMON of Aeroflex. But GRMON is support general features of LEON processor. They are not support specific processor or peripherals. So in this paper, we were developed the processor monitoring tool for NGSCB using AT697F DSU(Debug Support Unit).
Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate the mediating effect of the level of satisfaction of collegestudents with their major between the motivation behind their major selection and their adjustment to school life. Method: A total of 262 college students who will be majoring in occupational therapy in the capital area were usedas the subjects and were given a survey. An analysis was conducted to determine the correlation among thedifferent factors considered. A hierarchical multiple regression was employed to measure the mediating effect ofthe students’ satisfaction with their major on the relationship between the motivation of their major selection andtheir adjustment to school life. Result: According to the results of this study, statistically significant positive correlations were found among themotivation of their major selection, satisfaction with their major, and adjustment to school life. In addition, theirsatisfaction with their major produced a partial mediating effect on the relationship between their satisfaction withtheir major and their adjustment to school life (β = .334, β = .371). Conclusion: This study confirmed that adjustment to school life was affected by the motivation behind the students’major selection and satisfaction with their major. In addition, satisfaction with their major is partially mediatedbetween the motivation behind their major selection and satisfaction with their major. Therefore, to improve thestudents’ adjustment to school life, it is important to know the interactive role behind the motivation to select theirmajor, as well as their satisfaction with their major, and the source of such satisfaction. 목적 : 본 연구는 작업치료과 대학생들의 전공선택동기와 전공만족도, 대학생활적응 간에 어떠한 관계가있는지 알아보고, 전공만족도가 전공선택동기와 대학생활적응의 관계에서 매개효과를 갖는지를 검증하는것이다. 연구방법 : 수도권 소재 전문대학의 작업치료과 재학생 262명을 대상으로 설문조사를 진행하였다. 자료분석은 변수들 간의 상관성을 알아보기 위하여 피어슨 상관분석을 실시하였으며, 다음으로는 전공선택동기가 대학생활적응에 미치는 영향에서 전공만족도의 매개효과를 알아보기 위해 위계적 회귀분석을 실시하였다. 결과 : 작업치료과 대학생들의 전공선택동기, 전공만족도, 대학생활적응도의 평균은 각각 3.20점, 3.56점,3.28점이었으며 전공선택동기와 전공만족도, 대학생활적응도 간의 상관관계는 유의미한 정적 상관성이있는 것으로 나타났다. 그리고 전공선택동기가 대학생활적응에 미치는 영향에서 전공만족도의 부분매개효과가 나타났다(β = .334, β = .371). 결론 : 따라서 작업치료과 대학생들에게 전공선택동기는 대학생활적응에 직접적인 영향을 주고 있을 뿐 아니라 전공만족도를 통해서도 대학생활적응에 간접적인 영향을 주고 있음을 시사한다. 본 연구결과는 전공만족도는 대학생활적응을 높이는 요인임을 확인하였으며, 대학생활적응을 높이기 위해서는 전공만족도의 역할이 중요하다.
The effect of dividend policy on stock prices is an issue of growing interest and controversy in the financial literature. As Miller & Modigliani show, if capital markets are perfect the dividend policy of the firm, for a liven investment policy, does not affect its market vague. However, in a world in which dividends are taxed more heavily than capital gains, investors may demand higher before-tax returns to hold securities with high dividend yield. Hence, the existence of a tax effect and of a tax-indnced clientele effect are empirical issues. In this paper the ex-dividend behavior of common stock prices is investigated. The result of the investigation reveals the ex-dividend .day returns for the taxable common stocks are inconsistent with the tax hypothesis.
Turner syndrome is the most common chromosomal disorder in girls. Various phenotypic features show depending upon karyotype from normal female through ambiguous genitalia to male. Usually, Turner girls containing 45,X/46,XY mosaicism, or sex-determining region Y (SRY) gene may have mixed gonadal dysgenesis with various external sexual differentiation. We experienced a short statured 45,X Turner girl with normal external genitalia. Because SRY gene was positive, laparoscopic gonadectomy was performed. The dysgenetic gonads revealed bilateral ovotesticular tissues. The authors report a mixed gonadal dysgenesis case found in clinical 45,X Turner patient with positive SRY gene. Screening for SRY gene should be done even the karyotype is 45,X monosomy and external genitalia is normal.
We investigate how the negotiation situation affects negotiation performance during a corporate workout following a near-bankruptcy. Using survey data collected from 300 executives of debtor companies who participated in negotiation at the start of the corporate workout program, we examined the effect of the negotiation situation on negotiation performance, with a focus on examining the moderating effect of the negotiator type. According to our findings, information sharing, negotiation objectives, time constraints, and relative dependence all had a statistically significant positive (+) effect on negotiation performance. Furthermore, we discover that the effects of information sharing, negotiation goals, and relative dependence on negotiation performance vary depending on whether the negotiator is a problem-solving, competitive, or concession negotiator. This study broadens the scope of negotiation research by shedding light on the relationship between the negotiation situation, negotiator type, and negotiation performance during the corporate workout process. Our research also has practical implications for practitioners involved in corporate workouts. 본 연구는 경영악화로 인한 기업회생 과정에서 채무자인 기업과 채권자 간의 협상과정과 성과 간의 관계를 분석하는 것을 목적으로 하였다. 이를 위해 협상상황이 협상성과에 미치는 영향과 협상자 유형의 조절효과를 분석하였다. 분석을 위해 기업회생을 위한 협상에 직접 참여한 회생기업의 임원 및 대표이사 300명의 자료를 수집하여 분석하였다. 분석결과 협상상황인 정보공유, 협상목표, 시간압박, 상대의존도 모두 협상성과에 정(+)의 유의한 영향을 미치는 것을 발견하였다. 또한, 협상자 유형의 조절효과를 분석한 결과 정보공유, 협상목표, 협상성과에 대한 상대적 의존도는 협상가가 문제해결적 협상가인지 경쟁적 협상가인지 양보형 협상가인지에 따라 차이가 있음을 발견하였다. 본 연구는 기업회생 과정에서 협상 상황, 협상가 유형, 협상 성과 간의 관계를 조명함으로써 협상 연구의 범위를 확장한다. 또한, 본 연구는 기업회생 과정에 참여하는 실무자들에게 실질적인 영향을 미칠 것이다.