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This experimental phonetic analysis aims to describe standard Korean simple vowels with a view to presenting the vowel quality change from generation to generation, especially between the 50's and the 20's. This change reflects that the contemporary vowel system has both stable and unstable aspect: the former can be affirmed in the vowels with extreme positions in the vowel quadrilateral. and the latter in some vowels(e.g.,'ㅔ/ㅐ') which have the non-quantal vowel characteristics in the current vowel system. Formant values are measured to show these. And the results of acoustic analysis are presented graphically in the vowel quadrilateral for the convenience' sake. The comparison between the articulatory vowel quadrilateral and the acoustic one shows a lot concerning the current vowel quality change.
There is a strong demand for the contactless transportation device for a hard disk and silicon wafer without contaminating and damaging them. To fulfill this requirements, A transportation device for them has been proposed. But the device needs many of costly displacement sensors positioned along the transportation interval and possesses a very complicated controller and driving scheme. To overcome those kinds of drawback, in this paper, we present a very simple and cost-effective transportation device which only consists of a linear guide, very simple electrostatic suspension system and driving circuit of stepping motor. The principle of stable suspension by relay feedback control, derivation of lateral restoring force, the design of transportation system are described, followed by the experimental system. Experimental results show that a 3.5-inch hard disk has been transported with a speed of approximately 20㎜/s while being suspended stably at a gap of 0.25㎜.
본 연구는 강점의 구성개념을 파악하기 위해, 한국 실정에 맞게 개발된 청소년 강점척도와 청소년의 성격, 청소년 강점 척도와 청소년의 삶의 만족도, 청소년의 성격과 청소년의 삶의 만족도 간의 상호관련성을 살펴보고, 이러한 변인들이 삶의 만족도에 어떠한 영향을 주는지를 알아보고자 하였다. 이를 위해 중고등학생 1,746명(중학생 485명, 고등학생 1232명)을 대상으로 청소년강점검사와 NEO청소년성격검사, 청소년 삶의 만족도 설문을 실시하였다. 연구결과, 첫째, 강점과 성격 요인들 간에 상관은 보였으나 상관계수 크기가 큰 요인 보다 작은 요인들이 많았다. 둘째, 강점과 삶의 만족간의 상관관계 분석을 실시한 결과 전체적으로 성격과 강점 모두 삶의 만족과 유의하게 관련되었다. 셋째, 위계적 다중회귀분석 결과, 성격 요인 이외에 강점요인들이 포함된 회귀모형들은 통계적으로 유의하게 설명력이 증가하였다. 마지막으로 본 연구의 의의와 제한점이 논의되었다. The purpose of this study was to analyze the constructs of Korean adolescents` strengths as well as the relationships of adolescents strengths and personality to life satisfaction. For this purpose, Adolescents Strengths Assessment Inventory, NEO adolescent personality inventory and KLSSA(Korean Life Satisfaction Scale for Adolescence) were measured. Data were obtained from 1,746 students (middle school 485, high school 1232). The results are as follows: First, although generally there were significant correlations between 20 strength factors and 5 personality factors, sizes of correlation coefficients were mostly rather small. Second, results of correlation analyses showed that both strengths and personality were significantly correlated with life satisfaction. Third, results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that strengths explained an additional significant variance of life satisfaction above the effect of personality. Lastly, the limitations and implications of the present study were discussed.
Recently the electrostatic 2-axis MEMS stages have been fabricated for the purpose of an application to PSD (Probe-based Storage Device). However, all of the components (platform, comb electrodes, springs, anchors, etc.) in those stages are placed in-plane so that they have low areal efficiencies such as a few percentage, which is undesirable as data storage devices. In this paper, we present a novel structure of an electrostatic 2-axis MEMS stage that is characterized by having a large areal efficiency of about 25%. For obtaining large area efficiency, the actuator part consisting of mainly comb electrodes and springs is placed right below the platform. The structure and operational principle of the MEMS stage are described, followed by a design and analysis, the fabrication and measurement results. Experimental results show that the driving ranges of the fabricated stage along the x and y axis were 27㎛, 38㎛ at the supplied voltages of 65V, 70V, respectively and the natural frequencies along x and y axis were 180㎐, 3 10㎐, respectively. The total size of the stage is about 5.9 × 6.8㎟ and the platform size is about 2.7 × 3.6㎟
Recently the electrostatic 2-axis MEMS stages have been fabricated for the purpose of an application to PSD (Probe-based Storage Device). However, all of the components(platform, comb electrodes, springs, anchors, etc.) in those stages are placed in-plane so that they have low areal efficienceis, which is undesirable as data storage devices. In this paper, we present a novel structure of an electrostatic 2-axis MEMS stage that is characterized by having large area platform. For obtaining large area efficiency, the actuator part consisting of mainly comb electrodes and springs is placed right below the platform. The structure and operational principle of the MEMS stage are described, followed by a design procedure, structural and modal analyses using FEM(Finite Element Method). The areal efficiency of the MEMS stage was designed to be about 25%, which is very large compared with the conventional ones having a few percentage.
Recently the electrostatic 2-axis MEMS stages have been fabricated for the purpose of an application to PSD (Probebased Storage Device). However, most of them have low area efficiency, which is undesirable as data storage devices, since all of the components (springs, comb electrodes, anchors, platform, etc.) are placed in-plane. In this paper, we present a novel structure of electrostatic 2-axis MEMS stage that is characterized by having large area platform. For large area efficiency, the actuator part consisting of mainly comb electrodes and springs is placed right below the platform. In this article, the structures and operational principle of the MEMS stages are described, followed by design procedure, structural and modal analysis using FEM(Finite Element Method). The area efficiency of the MEMS stage was designed to be about 55%, that is very large compared with conventional ones having a few percentage.
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1994년 9월부터 1995년 5월까지 한국 보훈 병원 정신과에 입원하였거나 타과 병동에 입원하고 정신과로 자문 의뢰되었던 환자중, DSM-IV에 의하여 외상후 스트레스 장애로 진단된 환자 40명을 환자군으로 하고. 정신과를 제외한 임상 각 과에 입원한 환자중 정신과적 문제를 보이지 않았던 78명을 대조군으로 하여 전투 경험 정도를 측정하기 위한 Combat Exposure Scale(CES), 우울 정도를 측정하기 위한 Beck Depression Inventory(BDI), 외상후 스트레스 장애의 증상 유형과 정도를 측정하기위한 Mississippi scale for combat related PTSD를 사용 하였고 정신과 의사에 의한 면담을 시행하여 참전 국가 유공자들에서의 외상후 스트레스 장애의 위험 인자들을 조사하여 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었다. 1) 입영전 관련 인자로서는 20세이하에서 외상후 스트레스 장애가 통계적으로 유의하게 많았다(p<0.05). 2) 전쟁 관련 인자로는 전투 경험 척도인 CES점수 12점 이상에서 외상후 스트레스 장애가 통계적으로 유의하게 많았다(p<0.05). 3) 전역후 관련 인자로는 직업이 없는 경우 외상후 스트레스 장애가 통계적으로 유의하게 많았다(p<0.05). 4) Mississippi scale과 BDI를 이용한 외상후 스트레스 장애 증상 정도와 우울 정도는 환자군이 대조군에 비해 각각 통계적으로 유의하게 높았다(p<0.05. p<0.05) 이상의 결과들은 외상후 스트레스 장애의 발병 가능성이 외상 그 자체의 특성 뿐 아니라 입영전 관련인자, 전역후 관련 인자와도 관계가 있음을 나타내며, 앞으로 동질 집단에서의 전체 참전 재향 군인을 대상으로 한 후속연구가 필요할 것으로 사료된다. Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk factors in veterans for posttraumatic stress disorder and to find the correlation between the disorder and the characteristics of the variables. Methods : We compared the risk factors in veterans between 40 diagnosed PTSD patients and 78 controls, using psychiatric interview by psychiatrists and measurement instruments such as CES, Mississippi scale, and BDI. Results : 1) There was statistically significant difference in prevalence on pre-military factor with regard to age at recruit(p <0.05). 2) PTSD on military factor was closely correlated with CES score(p <0.05). 3) There was statistically significant difference in PTSD on post-military factor with regard to occupation(p <0.05). 4) Scores of Mississippi scale, and BDI in PTSD were higher than those in control subjects(p<0.05, p <0.05). Conclusion : This results suggest that the likelihood of developing PTSD in veterans depends on pre-military and post-military factors in addition to features of the trauma itself. Age of entry into the military, CES score, and occupation had stastically significant relationships with PTSD.
This study investigated the quality characteristics and physiological activities of takju prepared with whole chestnut (15%, 30% and 50% with steamed rice) during fermentation. The pH level began to decrease after the secondary brewing stage. The total acid as well as the organic acid content increased during fermentation. Lactic acid and succinic acid were the main organic acids in takju fermented with whole chestnut. The level of total sugar and reducing sugars in takju fermented with whole chestnut increased at the first brewing stage and then slowly decreased after 4 days of fermentation. Also, the total number of viable cells and microbial populations such as lactic acid bacteria and yeast in the treatments increased to about 108 CFU/mL after 1 days of fermentation and then decreased gradually afterward. The ethanol content in takju fermented with whole chestnut rapidly increased during the initial 4 days of fermentation, to a maximum content of 18.2% after 8 days. The colour values of the treatments did not show any significant differences between 0% and 15% chestnut content. However L value decreased, while the a and b values increased when the whole chestnut content above 30%. The total polyphenol level, electron donating ability, nitrite-scavenging ability and ferrous ion effect also increased as the ratio of whole chestnut increased. Sensory scores of takju fermented with 15% chestnut were greater than those of takju prepared by other treatments.