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        • Environmental Effects on the Molecular Gas Properties of Cluster Spirals

          정은정,애리,이명현,Jeong, Eun-Jeong,Jeong, Ae-Ri,Lee, Myeong-Hyeon 한국천문학회 2011 天文學會報 Vol.36 No.1

          It is well known that the cluster environment can change the atomic gas properties of galaxies through tidal interactions and/or by the hot cluster medium. Meanwhile, the molecular gas is expected to be less vulnerable to its surroundings due to its higher density, and no obvious influence of the environment on the molecular gas properties had been found among cluster spirals until recently. However, in a recent study by Fumagalli et al. (2009) of a sub-sample of Virgo spirals, it has been suggested that HI deficient galaxies can be also CO deficient. In order to further investigate if the HI deficiency indeed can result in the deficiency in molecular gas content, we compare the global CO and HI gas properties of Virgo spirals with those of galaxies in the Ursa Major cluster and the Pisces cluster, much lower density environments than Virgo. We discuss possible consequences of molecular gas deficiency in star formation activity of spiral galaxies in high density environment.

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          양파식초의 발효제조 및 제품의 생리활성

          정은정,박혜진,차용준,Jeong, Eun-Jeong,Park, Hye-Jin,Cha, Yong-Jun 한국식품영양학회 2016 韓國食品營養學會誌 Vol.29 No.6

          Commercialized production of onion vinegar, which has biological activities formed through alcohol and acetic acid fermentation, requires standardization. The objective of this study was to determine optimal conditions of sugar contents ($11{\sim}15^{\circ}Brix$) and agitation rate (100~300 rpm) of fermenter in the alcohol-acetic fermentation for producing onion vinegar. The alcohol and total acidity contents increased, whereas contents of total sugars decreased during alcohol fermentation. Contents of alcohol of 13 and $15^{\circ}Brix$ reactants were about 8% in 36 hr and total acidities of all samples were below 0.2% in 60 hr. During acetic fermentation, total acidity increased with highest value at 9 days (3.2% in 100 rpm), 10 days (4.1% in 200 rpm) and 8 days (4.3% in 300 rpm), respectively. From these results, sugar contents ($13^{\circ}Brix$) were measured for alcohol fermentation and agitation rate (300 rpm) for fast fermentation method of vinegar. The contents of total phenols, flavonoids and quercetin in onion vinegar were 33.3 mg/100 g, 3.0 mg/100 g and 2.0 mg/100 g, respectively. Onion vinegar showed an antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes. Antioxidant effect of onion vinegar was 26.23% in DPPH radical inhibition and 58.58% in superoxide dismutase like activity, respectively. Fibrinolytic activity was 1.51 plasmin unit/mL in onion vinegar. In conclusion, onion vinegar processed by alcohol and acetic fermentation had nutritional values and potential biological activities.

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          오미자 첨가 양파초음료 제조 및 항균·항산화 활성

          정은정,차용준,Jeong, Eun-Jeong,Cha, Yong-Jun 한국식품영양학회 2018 韓國食品營養學會誌 Vol.31 No.1

          Onion vinegar, which has an undesirable flavor and taste formed through alcohol and acetic acid fermentation, possesses additives that can improve sensory quality. Thus, the objective of this study was to present an optimized blending ratio using response surface methods for an onion vinegar beverage by adding Omija extracts. This study was performed to formulate an Omija-onion vinegar beverage (OOVB) and investigate its antioxidant properties and antimicrobiological effects. The experimental design was conducted using an optimal mixture model of response surface methodology which generated eighteen experimental trials with overall acceptance as the responses. According to the statistical analyses, OOVB demonstrated a ratio containing onion vinegar, water, brown sugar, apple extracts and Omija extracts of 10, 72.3, 4.4, 12.2 and 1.1 (weight ratio), respectively. The OOVB revealed desirable nutrition values (phenolics compounds 19.3 mg/100 g, total flavonoids 3.1 mg/100 g, quercetin 1.9 mg/100). The OOVB displayed antibacterial effects in Gram negative Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus. The findings revealed that OOVB was 18% in DPPH radical inhibitionand 11% in superoxide dismutase-like activity thus, OOVB has nutritional value and good quality as well as potential biological activities for functional beverages.

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          Size-exclusion chromatography법에 의한 식품 중 알긴산프로필렌글리콜 분석법 확립

          정은정,최유,이근영,윤상순,임호수,김용석,Jeong, Eun-Jeong,Choi, Yoo-Jeong,Lee, Gunyoung,Yun, Sang Soon,Lim, Ho Soo,Kim, Yong-Suk 한국식품위생안전성학회 2017 한국식품위생안전성학회지 Vol.32 No.5

          HPLC-size-exclusion chromatography에 의해 가공식품에서 알긴산프로필렌글리콜의 함량을 분석하는 방법이 개발되었다. 알긴산프로필렌글리콜을 분석하기 위해 GF-7M HQ column과 LT-ELSD detector가 선정되었다. 알긴산프로필렌글리콜 분석을 위한 전처리 조건으로는 $20^{\circ}C$에서 150 rpm으로 3시간 동안 추출하는 방법이 선정되었다. 알긴산프로필렌글리콜을 5 농도(300, 500, 700, 1,000, and 1,500 mg/kg) 범위에서 검량선을 작성한 결과 직선성($R^2$)은 0.9873으로 측정되었다. HPLC system에 의한 알긴산프로필렌글리콜 분석시 검출한계(LOD) 및 정량한계(LOQ)는 각각 171.43 mg/kg 및 519.50 mg/kg이었다. Size-exclusion chromatography에 의해 얻은 회수율 및 변동 계수(coefficient of variation)는 각각 86.1~110.4% 및 4.1~13.5%이었다. 본 연구에서 개발된 HPLC-size-exclusion chromatography system을 적용하여 134 품목의 가공식품에서 알긴산프로필렌글리콜 함량을 분석하였다. 이 결과들은 이 방법이 가공식품에서 알긴산프로필렌글리콜 함량을 분석하는데 적용할 수 있는 방법이라는 것을 나타낸다. An analytical method for determination of propylene glycol alginate (PGA) in food products was developed by HPLC-size-exclusion chromatography. The GF-7M HQ column and LT-ELSD detector were determined by considering the instrumental analysis conditions for PGA analysis. The pretreatment method for the analysis of PGA was suitable for 3 hr extraction at $20^{\circ}C$ and 150 rpm according to the extraction temperature. Linearity ($R^2$) for the analysis of PGA was 0.9873 at calibration curve range of 300, 500, 700, 1,000, and 1,500 mg/kg (5 points). The limit of detection and limit of quantification of PGA on HPLC system was 171.43 and 519.50 mg/kg, respectively. The accuracy and coefficient of variation obtained by size-exclusion chromatography were 86.1~110.4% and 4.1~13.5%, respectively. By applying the HPLC-size-exclusion chromatography system, it was possible to analyze the contents of PGA in 134 different types of food products.

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          일반논문 : 고려전기 경기의 형성과 대경기제

          정은정 한국중세사학회 2004 한국중세사연구 Vol.0 No.17

          The space of Gyeongghi(京畿) of Goryeo era was expanding from GaeJu(開州) in the Taejou(太祖) era and to Jeukghihyun(赤畿縣) in the Seungjong(成宗) era, and until Singyeongghi(新京畿) in the Munjong(文宗) era. Been expanded consecutively Gyeongghi, the rank structure inner at the district of Gyeongghi was formed. Doseung(都城)~ Jeukhyun(赤縣), Ghihyun(畿縣)~Guannaedo(關內道) in the district of Gyeongghi was divided. Jeukghihyun in the Seungjong era was organized that Jeukhyun was located near Gaegung and Ghihyun was located in the rear. Jeukghihyun in the Seungjong era was continued on a dual organization of Gyeongghi in the Hyunjong. The main Gyeongghi was Gaeseonghyun(開城縣) and Jangdanhyun(長湍縣) and the Gyeongghi in the Hyunjong(縣宗) was organized with via the Sanyedo chyungkyodo and via the Dowuando kumgyodo along with a fork of the goods transportation. By the way, after Hyunjong, Gyeongghi came to clearer as a region like a Gigaeseongbusa(知開城府事) in 16 years of Munjong and Gyeongghi of 23 years. Meanwhile, the space structure of the Gyeongghi was followed in the discriminative organization along the time of regional development. At the beginning, the district of Gyeongghi began with Gaeseonghyun aroung Songakhyun and the space supplied from Jeonsikau(田柴科) was expanded step by step and the space of Gyeongghi also was expanded. Jeonsikau Siji with time of war is for the life of Geogyeongguanin and is distributed in the point advantage for transport the goods at the Gaegyeong. From this cause, the distribution of the Jeonsikau Sigi contains the mean which is a regional development. The distribution of Ghinae of the Jeonsikau Sigi is involved to intention of the centralization of government to develop a region. We can see that the location of Ghinae show a downward tendency. It will be able to aim The change of national development through regional mobile aspect of Ghijeon. Moreover, to select in the Gyeongghi was based on the regional base and the dynamic relationship of the political power. Gyengghi in the Munjong era was largely expanded, and around Gaegyeong(開京)-seugyeong(西京) was set in 2ilgeong and around Gaegyeong-namgyeong was set in 1 ilgeong, it will be understand to a measure of the power Namgyeong. After the Munjong, a debate of the transfer of the capital came out at the Namgyeong(南京). In the period of Munjong, to suggest the transfer of the capital must be prepared the base of the appropriate district. Actually, Guguannaedo was disorganized to the operation of Gyeongghi in the period of Munjong and the role of Guannaedo which divides the region and Ghihyun was transfered into woibanggunhyun.

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          과일유래 시판 식초음료류의 휘발성 향기성분

          정은정,전선영,백정화,차용준,Jeong, Eun-Jeong,Jeon, Seon-Young,Baek, Jeong-Hwa,Cha, Yong-Jun 한국생명과학회 2011 생명과학회지 Vol.21 No.2

          식초는 동서양의 대표적인 발효식품으로 조미용뿐만 아니라 건강기능식품 음료로써 잠재력을 가진 식품으로, 다양한 종류의 식초음료가 요구되고 있다. 따라서 본 연구는 시판 수입산 식초음료 3종(이탈리아산 발사믹식초음료-IVB, 일본산 포도블루베리식초음료-JVB, 일본산 유자폰즈-JYP) 및 국내산 1종(백포도식초음료-KWVB)의 휘발성 향기성분을 비교하여 다양한 식초음료개발에 대한 기초자료를 제시하고자 하였다. 분석결과 IVB 경우 총 62종의 화합물(산류 11종, 에스테르류 17종, 알콜류 10종, 알데히드류 8종, 테르펜류 3종, 방향족화합물 4종 및 케톤류 9종)이 검출되었다. 휘발성 화합물의 조성비율을 본다면 산류(61.3%), 에스테르류(11.7%) 및 케톤류(10.7%)가 대부분의 함량을 차지하였다. JVB는 총 55종 화합물(산류 7종, 에스테르류 8종, 알콜류 9종, 알데히드류 7종, 테르펜류 13종, 방향족화합물 7종, 케톤류 1종 및 기타 3종)로 산류 56.3%, 케톤류 15.7% 및 에스테르 8.97%로 IVB에 비해 전반적인 함량은 낮으나 유사한 조성비율 나타내었다. JYP의 경우 총 106종 화합물(산류 3종, 에스테르류 12종, 알콜류 8종, 알데히드류 7종, 테르펜류 63종, 방향족화합물 6종, 케톤류 2종 및 기타 5종)이 검출되었다. 휘발성 화합물의 조성비율을 본다면 유자로부터 기인되는 테르펜류화합물(79.6%)이 대부분의 함량을 나타내었다. KWV의 경우는 총 50종의 화합물(산류 10종, 에스테르류 10종, 알콜류 9, 알데히드류 8종, 테르펜류 2종, 방향족화합물 5종, 케톤류 4종 및 기타 2종)으로 산류 81% 및 케톤류 9.0%가 대부분의 함량을 나타내었다. KWVB 경우 다른 식초음료에 비해 산류의 함량이 높으나 다른 화합물의 함량은 낮고 조성비율도 낮게 나타났다. 와인을 원료하여 제조된 basamic식초음료에는 5가지 휘발성 향기성분인, 2-phenylethyl acetate (꽃향, 과일향), 2-phenylethanol (장미향), vitispirane (과일향), geranylacetone (fragrant향) 및 acetic acid가 주된 휘발성 향기성분으로 검출되었다. This study compared volatile flavor profiles of 4 commercial vinegar beverages (Italian vinegar beverage (IVB), Japanese vinegar beverage (JVB), Japanese Yuzu-Ponz (JYP), and Korean white wine vinegar beverage (KWVB)). Flavor components of vinegar beverages (VBs) were determined using SPME/GC/MSD. The profiles of VBs were as follows; IVB (11 acids, 17 esters, 10 alcohols, 8 aldehydes, 3 terpenes, 4 aromatic hydrocarbons, 9 ketones), JVB (7 acids, 8 esters, 9 alcohols, 7 aldehydes, 13 terpenes, 7 aromatic hydrocarbons, 1 ketones, 3 miscellaneous compounds), JYP (3 acids, 12 esters, 8 alcohols, 7 aldehydes, 63 terpenes, 6 aromatic hydrocarbons, 2 ketones, 5 miscellaneous compounds), KWVB (10 acids, 10 esters, 9 alcohols, 8 aldehydes, 2 terpenes, 5 aromatic hydrocarbons, 4 ketones, 2 miscellaneous compounds). IVB and JVB showed similar flavor compositions (acids, ketones and esters in particular), whereas major components in JYP and KWVB were terpenes (79.6%) and acids (81.0%), respectively. Five compounds including 2-phenylethyl acetate (floral, fruity, sweet odor), 2-phenylethanol (floral, rose odor), vitispirane (fruity odor), geranylacetone (fragrant odor) and acetic acid were identified as major components in balsamic vinegar beverages.

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