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이 논문은 일제강점기 호남 유림 송주헌의 생애와 활동을 검토한 연구이다. 송주헌은 송병선 등에게 성리학을 배운 연재학파의 문인으로 성리학적 가치체계를 내면화한 인물이었다. 일제가 대한제국을 강점한 후, 그는 스승에게 배운 ‘義理之學’을 실천하는 것을 자신의 나아가야 할 길로 삼았다. 그는 만동묘가 있는 화양동과 단종과 그의 충신들의 위패를 모신 숙모전 등이 있는 동학 사를 왕래하며 2월과 8월 춘추 제사에 참여하는 등 위정척사의 의리를 고수하였다. 1919년 거국적인 3·1운동이 일어나자, 3·1운동에 공식적으로 참여하지 못한 상황을 반성한 유 림은 파리장서운동을 펼쳤고, 송주헌도 조선 유림을 대표하는 서명자로 파리장서운동에 참여하였 다. 그러나 그가 적극적으로 참여한 것은 바로 순종복위운동이었다. 이는 복벽주의적 독립운동의 성격을 지니고 있었다. 그는 동지들과 함께 연명으로 순종이 복위하여 조선의 독립을 천명하라는 내용의 상소문을 작성하고 순종에게 직접 올리고자 하였다. 중도에 일본 헌병에게 잡히며 실패로 돌아가고, 그는 8개월 동안 감옥에 수감되어 고초를 겪다가 석방되었다. 그후 조선고사연구회에도 참여하여 일본까지 가서 독립운동의 의지를 밝혔으나, 결국 뜻을 얻지 못하고 은거하였다. 그는 비록 근대적 민족의식을 습득하지 못하고 평생 성리학의 세계관에서 벗어나지 못한 인물이었지 만, 일본을 ‘島夷’로 인식하고 죽을 때까지 타협하지 않고 저항의식을 견지한 인물이었다. This study investigated the life and activities of Confucian Scholar Song Ju-heon in the Honam region during the Japanese Occupation. Song Ju-heon was a writer of Yeonjae School, who learned Neo-Confucianism from Song Byeong-seon, etc. and internalized the Neo-Confucian value system. After the Japanese Empire occupied the Korean Empire, he took the practice of ‘learning of moral principles (Euirijihak)’ he learned from his teachers as his way forward. He stuck to the loyalty of ‘protecting righteousness and excluding evil (Wijeongcheoksa) ,’ e.g. Participating in February and August ancestral rites held in Spring and Autumn, visiting Hwayang-dong where there is Mandongmyo Shrine and Donghaksa Temple where there is Sukmojeon that enshrined the memorial tablets of King Dangjong and his loyalists. As the March 1st Movement took place nationwide in 1919, Confucian scholars who felt sorry for the situation in which they had not officially participated in the Movement carried out Korean Confucian Literati’s Petition to Paris Peace Conference (Paris-Jangseo Movement), and Song Ju-heon too participated as one of the signers representing Confucian scholars in the Joseon Dynasty. And yet, what he actively participated was the movement for restoration of King Sunjong. This had a character as a Monarchist Independence Movement. With his comrades, he prepared a public appeal by signing jointly to ask King Sunjong to restore and state Joseon’s Independence and would submit that directly to King Sunjong. Yet, that resulted in failure as he was caught by the Japanese Military Police. He was imprisoned and suffered hardships for eight months till he was released. After that, he participated in the Early Joseon History Study Group and expressed his will for the Independence Movement, but he lived a secluded life at last, not being able to achieve his goal. Although he did not learn modern national consciousness and did not get out of the Neo-Confucian world view throughout his life, he was a person who recognized the Japanese people as ‘Island Barbarians (Doi)’ and held fast to the spirit of resistance without compromise till he died.
This article reviews political and social activities of Pro-Japanese Confucian, Yang Bong-Je(梁鳳濟). Born in 1851, Yang studies under Park Moon-Il(朴文一) from School of Hwaseo(華西學派), and began his career as an aristocrat in 1879, after passing the National Examination for Civil Service. Despite his School of origin, which was one of the most conventional schools of Confucianism, he embraced the New Learning(新學) and converted himself into the Reformed Confucian. During his time as a local governor Yang also supported school establishments, understanding importance of cultivating peoples’ capabilities. As such, Yang’s activities during 19th century shows that he worked as a devoted aristocrat of Joseon Monarch and later Daehan Empire, as a celebrity of North Pyongan Province. But evidences from 20th century shows that Yang chose different path from his past ones. In October 30th, 1912, Yang Bong-Je, appointed by the Government General of Korea, worked as Lecturer of North Pyongan Provincial Gyeonghagwon(經學院) for 14 years, until his death in 1926. From then on his activities were Pro-Japanese, such as giving provincial lecture tours that insisted on obeying policies of Colonial Government; and writing poetries that praised Emperor Daisho(大正天皇) and the Royal prince(later Emperor Showa(昭和天皇))Yet it is still inconclusive as to Yang’s identity of defected Pro-Japanese Confucian. His alumni of School of Hwaseo(華西學派) and renowned Independence Movement worker Yi Kwan-Gu(李觀求) regarded him as a man who devoted his life for the Movement. There are no evidence for Yi’s appraisal aside from his article, 『Uiyongsilgi(義勇實記)』. Still Yi’s statement cannot be regarded as false, since 『Uiyongsilgi(義勇實記)』 is in itself recognised as reliable source of facts, and its content so specific, that can written only by person who had keen knowledge about the situation. In conclusion, Yang Bong-Je represents the complexity and multi-faceted nature of Resistance and Cooperation, that shows yet another characteristics of Pro-Japanese Confucians.
A PANI/PSS nanofiller was introduced into a multilayer graphene matrix by mechanical blending, creating a graphene/polyaniline/poly (4-styrenesulfonate) (G/PANI/PSS) paste. PSS increases the homogeneity, interfacial interactions, and mechanical interlocking between the multilayer graphene and PANI, resulting in a uniform surface resistance. High concentrations of PSS enhance surface adhesion property of the film to a flexible substrate. The screen-printed G/PANI/PSS hybrid film has the minimum surface resistance of approximately 10 ohms/sq with uniform 70 um thickness, and the surface resistance only increased by 10 ohms/sq after the 500 bending cycles. The G/PANI/PSS is patterned for the application in dipole tag antenna: it has a bandwidth of 28.7 MHz, a transmitted power efficiency of 98.5%, and a recognition distance of 0.42 m at a mean frequency of 910 MHz.
This article analyzed Heo Jeon’s Theory of Governance or Kyung-se-ron(經世論). The theory is the result of arduous study by Heojeon, a 66-year-old master Confucian, who acknowledged paradox of 19th century Korean society and tried to resolve it. The theory reflected both historical reality of the era and the scholar’s status. As a member of Seongho Hakpa(星湖學派), he also tried to understand and resolve social problems following Confucian value system. The ideal country the scholar dreamt of was, after all, the country of virtue where the noble scholars, or Sajok(士族) ruled the country based on agriculture-based economy. He thought the ideal common people of such country should work hard on the field and gingerly respect the reign led by ideal noble scholars, who should participate in the politics and lead the people to the virtuous way. Therefore in his theory, education of the noble scholars was always emphasized. He also criticized the reality that talented scholars get no job in the government, but his scholars were the noble ones. However, the theory did not ignore common people. The fact that he chose ‘To Select the Right Official’ as the first item of his theory, reflects his analysis that Yimsool Minran was caused by greedy officials steal from the common people. He therefore emphasized the importance of ‘Selecting the right Officials’ and ‘Letting the Commoners Speak’ through official channels. He also emphasized the regulation of monetary circulation, for he thought that both personal ownership for the fields and paying tax with money impoverish the people. In conclusion, Heojeon, as devoted Confucian scholar, couldn’t think of other options than noble scholars as politicians, Confucianism as chief philosophy, and agriculture as the center of economy. In his mind, an ideal country should be agriculture-centered, and distribution of wealth should be based on the agriculture. That is why he lectured King Chuljong of ‘the essence of study’ and strengthening education for noble scholars.
This articles reviewed and analyzed another stream of understanding on the Korean history by the cult of Daejonggyo, which had been relatively unknown to the academic community. The cult of Daejonggyo contributed in establishing national identity of Korea by stressing the historicity of the ancient king Dangun and the Dangun's Joseon and introducing the National Foundation Day in early 20th century, influencing the Korean nationalistic history studies in 1910s. Such understanding in history was established by Kim Gyo-heon, the 2nd Jongsa (leader) of the Daejonggyo. However, in the Daejonggyo, there was another stream of understanding in the Koean history that acknowledged the Gija and the Gija's Joseon, which had been considered just as important as the Dangun and his kingdom, and worshipped by the conservative Confucian scholars until the late 19th century. It was at the beginning of the 20th century that the worship on Gija and his Joseon was denied and the historicity of Dangun became more stressed. However the Daejonggyo, leading group in the worship of Dangun, did acknowledged the historicity on the Gija and the Gija's Joseon to some extent, and the evidences of the trend are 「Dangungyo-odaejongji-pomyeongseo(檀君敎五大宗旨佈明書)」 that had been passed to Na Cheol from the cult of Baekbong, and 『Daedonggodaesaron(大東古代史論)』 written by Park Eun-sik, which had been written in 1909 and in 1911, respectively. The two books on the ancient Korean history dealt with the Gija and his kingdom of Joseon, the Gija's Joseon, which had been denied of its existence by the Daejonggyo. 「Dangungyo-odaejongji-pomyeongseo(檀君敎五大宗旨佈明書)」 recorded the title, name, and achievements of the ancient king of Gija, acknowledging the historicity of the king yet maintaining the Gija's Joseon was absorbed to the Dangun's Joseon in the end. 『Daedonggodaesaron(大東古代史論)』 also acknowledges the historicity Gija's Joseon, yet clealy states that the kingdom was one of the descendents of the Dangun's Joseon, and was later assimilated to the people of Korea, denying the non-attributable records on the Gija, his title of king, and achivements. Acknowledgement on the questionable existence of the King Gija and his kingdom was soon denied by Kim Gyo-heon, and the history on the Dangun and the Dangun's Joseon became the mainstream of the Daejonggyo in understanding the ancient Korean history, forming yet another part of the 'Koreanology.' 이 글은 학계에 알려지지 않았던 대종교의 역사인식의 다른 흐름을 검토, 분석하였다. 20세기 초 대종교는 단군・단군조선의 역사성 강조와 개천절 도입 등으로 민족 정체성 수립에 기여를 하며 1910년대 민족주의 사학에 상당한 영향을 끼쳤다. 단군과 단군조선의 역사성 강조라는 대종교의 역사인식은 대종교 2대종사 김교헌에 의해 수립되었는데, 이런 인식과 다르게 기자와 기자조선의 역사성을 부정하지 않은 역사인식도 초기 대종교에 존재하고 있었다. 19세기 말엽까지도 단군과 단군조선 못지않게 기자와 기자조선의 역사성을 중요하게 다루었으며, 보수유림의 경우 기자 숭배 의식은 더욱 컸다. 그런데 20세기에 들어오면서 민족 정체성 만들기의 일환으로 단군・단군조선의 역사성 강조와 함께 기자・기자조선의 배제가 나타났다. 이런 경향을 선도한 것이 대종교였으나, 초기 대종교에는 기자와 기자조선의 역사성을 인정하는 흐름도 분명 존재하였다. 그것을 보여주는 자료가 백봉교단이 나철에게 전해준 『단군교오대종지포명서』와 박은식이 저술한 『대동고대사론』이었다. 1909년에 공개된 『단군교오대종지포명서』와 1911년에 저술된 『대동고대사론』은 대종교가 배제했던 기자・기자조선을 중요하게 다루고 있었다. 『단군교오대종지포명서』는 기자조선의 국왕의 시호와 왕명 및 활동 등이 수록되었으며, 기자・기자조선의 역사성을 인정하되 단군조선에게 동화되었다는 관점을 유지하고 있다. 『대동고대사론』은 『단군교오대종지포명서』를 따라 기자와 기자조선의 역사성은 인정하였으나, 기자조선은 단군조선의 후예로 우리 민족과 완전히 동화되었다는 점을 분명하게 밝혔다. 그러나 『단군교오대종지포명서』에 기록된, 출처를 알 수 없는 기자조선 국왕의 왕명・활동 등의 내용은 수용하지 않았다. 초기 대종교에 존재하던 기자・기자조선의 역사성 인정은 바로 김교헌에 의해 부정되었고, 단군・단군조선의 역사성 강조와 기자・기자조선의 배제가 대종교의 주류 역사인식이 되었다. 그리고 이것이 ‘한국학’의 내용을 구성하는 데 일정한 역할을 했던 것도 부인할 수 없는 사실이다.
A graphene/polyaniline/poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (G/PANI/PSS)-based conducting paste is successfully fabricated by introducing a PANI/PSS nanofiller into a multilayer graphene matrix by mechanical blending. The incorporation of high concentrations of PSS, which acted as a compatibilizer and binder, by ex situ polymerization allowed for uniform surface resistance and good adhesion to a flexible substrate. The minimum surface resistance of the screen-printed G/PANI/PSS hybrid film with a 70 μm uniform thickness is approximately 10 Ω sq<sup>-1</sup>, and the resistance is increased only by 10 Ω sq<sup>-1</sup> after 500 bending cycles. With its high electrical conductivity and structural flexibility, the G/PANI/PSS hybrid film is used as the electrode in a dipole tag antenna; the hybrid film-based tag antenna was implemented at a center frequency of 910MHz and boasted a high transmitted power efficiency of 98.5% with a 0.42 m recognition distance.