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        • KCI등재

          여말선초 군현 간 합병ㆍ통합과 신읍치(新邑治)의 입지 경향

          정요근(Jeong Yo-keun) 한국역사연구회 2011 역사와 현실 Vol.- No.80

          Nationwide county consolidations took place during the transitional period between the Goryeo and Joseon dynasties, and the locations of the old and new county administration centers changed accordingly. In most of the ‘Large counties’ the location of county centers remained unchanged, yet in total of 18% of all cases, the county centers moved to a new location. In some cases, new county centers were installed in areas located at the center of some previous counties that were then recently demolished, while in some other cases, county centers would be built upon locations which previously had nothing to do with a county center of any kind. Still, in most cases, new county centers would be placed upon central areas of the recently enlarged county regions, or key traffic points that were designed to connect neighboring large counties. Therefore, environmental theories such as Geomantics was not a factor primarily considered in selecting the location of new county centers. In the meantime, some coastal counties (and its fortresses) were constructed upon locations that had nothing at all to do with either political importance or its vitality in the traffic flow. They were located there in order to provide defense for the counties and its inhabitants in case of incursions of the Japanese marauders. On the other hand, in some other cases political factors were considered above all else in choosing the location for a new county center. Nevertheless, the consolidation of the counties, and the installation of new county centers during this period, constituted an important historical phenomenon which shaped the Joseon dynasty’s local administration system.

        • KCI등재

          고려시대와 조선전기 전남지역의 역로망 구성과 그 특징

          정요근(Jeong Yo-Keun) 역사문화학회 2010 지방사와 지방문화 Vol.13 No.2

          전근대시기 교통로에 대한 연구는 해당 시기 국가의 지방통치나 대외관계의 실상을 이해하는 데 유용한 매개가 된다. 이른바 ‘驛路網’은 역을 통해 각 군현 간을 연결하는 교통망이라고 정의할 수 있는데, 본 연구에서는 현재의 전남지역(광주 포함)에 해당하는 영역에서 고려시대 역들의 위치를 추적하여 당시의 역로망을 복원하였다. 고려와 조선전기 모두 전남지역의 역 숫자는 34곳으로 동일하였지만, 그 중 29곳이 계승관계에 있는 역들이었으며, 고려시대에 운영되다가 폐지된 역 및 조선시대에 들어와 신설된 역은 각각 5곳에 지나지 않았다. 즉 통폐합 등의 변동이 심했던 군현의 경우와는 달리, 전남지역 역로망의 기본 골격은 고려와 조선 사이에 별다른 차이가 없었던 것이다. 다만 고려시대에 운영되다가 조선전기에 폐지된 역의 위치를 살펴보면, 고려시대에는 영산강 서쪽의 서해안 방면에서 조선시대보다 역의 분포밀도가 높았으며, 군소규모의 속현으로 존재하다가 여말선초에 폐지된 군현에 위치하거나, 폐지된 군현 및 군현이 존재하지 않았던 곳으로 연결되는 지점에 위치한 역 등이 조선시대에 들어와 혁파되었다. 반면 조선시대에 신설된 역의 분포를 분석하면, 여말 이래 강조되어온 해안방비의 중요성과 관련하여 남쪽 해안지대에 몇몇 역이 신설되었고, 그 외에도 기존 교통로를 대체하는 역로의 개발, 역의 설치가 미비했던 내륙지역의 원활한 역로망 구축 등의 이유로 역이 신설되었다. 대체로 고려시대의 역로망은 조선시대보다 영산강 서쪽의 서해안 방면을 중시했으며, 조선시대에는 해안의 방비라는 측면에서 남해안 방면을 보다 중시하였다. Study on traffic routes of pre-modem age can be a useful means for understanding important aspects of the central government's local administration and foreign relations in each age. So called 'postal station network' is defined as the traffic routes' network connected among prefectures or counties through postal stations. This research aims to restore the postal station network during pre-modem era on the area of current Jeolla Southern Province. Postal stations located on current Jeolla Southern Province in Goryeo and in Joseon dynasty were both 34 places. The 29 stations of them were successive from Goryeo to Joseon, stations functioned in Goryeo but closed in Joseon were 5 places, and stations newly opened in Joseon were also 5 places. It means that framework of postal station network in Jeolla Southern Province was very similar without any particular change between Goryeo and Joseon dynasty. Investigating locations of postal stations functioned in Goryeo era but closed in Joseon era, Goryeo's station density distribution was higher than Joseon's in west coastal region of Yeongsan River. On the contrary, some stations located on small-sized counties annexed in Joseon era or with places where counties did not exist were finally abolished. On the other hand, looking into the distribution of newly installed stations in Joseon era, we can see that the station installation of the south coastal region was deeply related to the importance of coastal defense emphasized since the late Goryeo era. Stations of other regions were installed for the purpose of opening new postal routes as substitute of previous routes and establishing new postal network connecting with isolated regions where postal facilities were insufficient. On the whole, postal routes connecting toward west coastal area of Yeongsan River was regarded more important in Goryeo era, compared with Joseon era, While Joseon's postal network, in terms of coastal defense, considered south coastal area as more important.

        • KCI등재

          통일신라시기의 간선교통로

          정요근(Jeong, Yo-Keun) 한국고대사학회 2011 韓國古代史硏究 Vol.0 No.63

          통일 후 신라는 전국을 9주로 나누고 5소경과 여러 군현을 편제하면서, 왕경과 각 지역의 주치 및 소경 간을 잇는 노선을 간선교통로로 중시하였다. 각 간선로의 노선은 ‘군’의 치소 간을 잇는 교통로들의 결합을 통해 복원할 수 있다. 왕경에서 주변지역으로 뻗어나가는 교통로는 6가지의 루트(왕경6로)로 구분할 수 있는데, 그 중 왕경서로가 가 장 중시되었다. 왕경으로부터 전국의 주요 대읍으로 향하는 간선교통로는 왕경서로를 지나 상주 방면으로 연결되는 교통로가 가장 중시되었으며, 한강 유역 확보와 백제 방면 진출이라는 신라의 국가 발전 단계와 밀접하게 연관되었다. 왕경과 각 지방의 대읍을 연결하는 통일신라의 간선교통로는 삼국통일 후 전면적인 재편을 통해서 이루어진 것이 아니라, 통일 이전부터 진행된 영토 확장의 과정에서 구축된 것이었다. 그러므로 시대적 흐름에 따라 각 방면의 거점들이 신설, 폐지, 이전되는 과정은 간선교통로의 시 대별 중요성 변화와도 밀접한 연관을 갖고 있었다. Silla divided whole country into nine provinces called ju(州), designated some local key points as five secondary capitals called sogyeong(小京) after the three kingdoms unification. Silla regarded routes between the royal capital and local hub cities(nine provincial capitals and five secondary capitals) as national artery roads. Line of each artery road can be restored through joining short-distance routes linking between counties. There were six routes extending from the capital for outer area in Unified Silla period, and the westward capital route, one of those six routes, was the most important line. The Artery route extending from capital which reached Sangju province through westward capital route was regarded as the most important of nationwide artery route between the capital and local major cities. Also, it was a main route Silla used during its national development such as occupying Han River basin and advancing to former Baekje area. Unified Silla’s Artery Routes linking between the capital and local major cities was not set up by reorganization after the unification but was actually organized through the process of territorial expansion which took place before the three kingdoms unification. Therefore, the rise and fall of local major cities performing regional hub function was deeply related with geopolitical importance’s fluctuation each artery route had with the change of era.

        • KCI등재

          고려∼조선 시대 院 시설 유적의 특성과 院 시설의 유형 분류

          정요근(Jeong, Yokeun) 한국사학회 2020 史學硏究 Vol.0 No.140

          본 논문에서는 고려 및 조선 시대 원 시설 유적으로 확인된 14곳에 대한 검토를 통하여, 원 시설 유적의 특성을 정리하고 유형을 분류하였다. 그리하여 고려 시대와 조선 전기에 전국적으로 존재하였던 원 시설의 역사적 성격을 더욱 구체적이고 다양하게 파악할 수 있었다. 원 시설의 주요 특징으로는 고려로부터 조선 시대까지 오랜 기간 존속했던 곳이 많았다는 점, 교통로를 따라 설치되며 교통 요지에 위치하였다는 점, 불교신앙의 공간을 겸한 곳이 많았다는 점 등을 들 수 있다. 또한, 고려 및 조선 시대 원 시설은 존속 기간과 불교 신앙 시설의 유무라는 2가지 기준에 따라 전체 8개 유형으로 분류할 수 있다. 원 시설 중에는 ㅁ자형 건물유구를 가진 곳이 많으나, 특정한 형식의 건물구조나 배치 전형을 뚜렷하게 가지지는 않았다. 한편 원 시설의 불교 신앙 시설은 일찍이 고려 시대에 건립된 것들도 있으나, 불교의 사회적 위상이 하락하기 시작하는 여말선초에 건립된 것들도 적지 않게 확인된다. 이는 조선 건국 이후에도 불교계의 사회적 영향력이 여전히 강고하였음을 보여주는 근거로 이해할 수 있다. This paper examined fourteen sites that have been confirmed to be Won (院) facilities sites from the Goryeo dynasty and the Joseon dynasty to analyze their characteristics and types. Through the analysis, this study was able to gain a detailed and diverse perspective of the historical characteristics of Won(院) facilities that existed nationwide during the Goryeo dynasty and the early Joseon dynasty. The main features of the Won(院) facilities were that most of them existed for a long period from the Goryeo dynasty to the Joseon dynasty, that they were located along principal roads, and that many of the facilities also served as spaces for Buddhist faith. The Won(院) facilities from the Goryeo dynasty and the Joseon dynasty could be classified into eight types by two criteria: the period of existence and whether the facility served as a space for the Buddhist faith. Many of the Won(院) facilities had the remains of rectangular-shaped buildings but did not display any exact type of structure or layout. While some of the facilities for Buddhist faith within the Won(院) facilities were established early during the Goryeo dynasty, more than a few facilities were built during the end of the Goryeo dynasty and the early Joseon dynasty, when the social status of Buddhism began to decline. This could be understood as proof that the social influence of Buddhism was remained strong even after the establishment of Joseon.

        • KCI등재

          고려~조선전기 漕倉의 분포와 입지

          정요근(Jeong, Yokeun) 고려사학회 2014 한국사학보 Vol.- No.57

          본 논문에서는 고려~조선시대 조창의 입지가 가지는 역사적 의미에 대하여 고찰하였다. 고려시대에는 한반도 남해안에도 조창을 설치하여 조운의 범위에 포함시켰으나, 조선왕조는 15세기 초반 남해안의 조창을 모두 폐쇄하였다가, 17세기경부터 경상도 남해안에 조창을 재건하였다. 반면 한반도 북쪽의 경우, 고려시대에는 개경 이북에 1곳의 조창만을 두었으나, 조선전기에는 한양 이북에 3곳의 조창을 두었다. 한양으로의 천도는 예성강 수계 지역과 북한강 수계 지역이 조운의 범위에 포함되는 중요한 계기가 되었다. 고려 13조창의 지역별 분포는 고려시대 主縣 중심의 행정단위와 밀접한 관련을 가졌다. 주요 대읍의 관할 범위 내에는 별도의 조창이 설치되는 것이 원칙이었다. 특히 전라도의 주요 대읍은 대부분 해안을 끼고 있어 각 대읍마다 조창이 설치되었다. 개별 조창의 입지에 관해서는, 고려 13조창의 경우, 바닷가 조창은 모두 만의 안쪽 깊숙한 포구에, 지천을 옆에 끼고 야트막한 구릉을 배경으로 하고 있었다. 반면 조선전기의 바닷가 조창은 상대적으로 外海에 가까운 곳에 위치하였다. 조선전기에는 조창의 전체 수효가 감소하여, 조창별 수세 구역이 넓어졌다. 대체로 바닷가 조창의 비중이 줄어들고 강변 조창의 비중이 증가하였다. While Goryeo dynasty managed Granaries for Marine Transportation (GMT) in regions of southern coast of the Korean Peninsula, the government of early Joseon dynasty abolished GMTs located on the southern coast due to concern on Japanese pirates’ marauding until the GMTs were reconstructed on the south coast of Gyeongsang province in the mid-18thcentury. In case of the northern Korean area, the Goryeo government managed only one GMT in northern region of Gaegyeong Capital, but three GMTs were operated in northern region of Hanyang Capital in the early Joseon period. Regional distribution of thirteen GMTs of Goryeo dynasty were deeply related to the dynasty’s local administrative system centered on Control County called juhyeon. In Goryeo era main Control County managed its own GMT if the county had advantageous conditions for operating GMT in its jurisdiction. Goryeo dynasty’s Nine GMTs of seaside were installed on the ports located in the deep inside of bay, and geographically one or more small rivers flew aside the GMT and small hill was located on the background of the GMT. On top of hills behind some GMTs, military fortresses for defending foreign invaders were built. On the whole, Joseon GMTs on seaside were located on places relatively closer to outside of bay than Goryeo GMTs on seaside. While the portion of GMTs on seaside decreased, the number of GMTs on riverside increased in Joseon period. Capital transfer to Hanyang and active use of river transportation were main reasons why the number of GMTs on riverside increased.

        • KCI등재

          7~11세기 경기도 북부지역에서의 간선교통로 변천과 '長湍渡路'

          정요근(Jeong Yo-Keun) 한국사연구회 2005 한국사연구 Vol.131 No.-

          The Changdando-ro route, which was in use during ancient times including the Three Kingdom and Unified Silla periods, was a main road connecting Kaegyong, the capital of Koryo dynasty, with the southern regions of the Korean peninsula during the early era of Koryo dynasty. After the foundation of the Koryo dynasty, the government was in need of creating a new traffic network centered on Kaegyong because Kaegyong was not located on the main road in previous era. However, instead of creating the new network the Koryo government modified the route of the previous main road by directly linking the road to Kaegyong. This meant the establishment of the so-called Chandando-ro as Koryos new main road between Kaegyong and southern regions of the peninsula. Accordingly, the opening of the Changdando-ro shows that Koryo, instead of radically pursuing full-scaled reorganization of previous Silla dynastys ruling system, gradually established its new order on the basis of accepting and assimilating previous ruling order. Koryo also set up a provincial administration system called the system of Kyonggi province from very early on. This system was founded for the purpose of protecting Kaegyong and administrating the domain surrounding Kaegyong, Indeed, Changdan county located near to Kaegyong played an important role in operating the system of Kyonggi province. It was regarded as the eastern center of the Kyonggi province, and performed two important functions, one of which was to protect Kaegyong in the east and the other was to control Changdan ferry which was the key to the Changdando-ro route. Consequently, the area of Kyonggi provinces eastern part controlled by Changdan county was much wider than that of its western part. One of the main reasons was due to the importance of Changdan county as an eastern key point not only of the Kyonggi province but also of the Changdando-ro route connecting southern regions of the Korean peninsula with Kaegyong. The importance of the Changdando-ro route, however, gradually decreased from the middle era of Koryo dynasty. and as a result the so-called Imjindo-ro route located on the west of the Changdando-ro route came to be regarded as the first main road between Kaegyong and southern regions of the peninsula. This transition was basically due to gradually exploiting southern part of the Kyonggi province during the early era of Koryo dynasty and building Namgyong as the southern stronghold of Kaegyong.

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          11세기 동여진 해적의 실체와 그 침략 추이

          정요근(Jeong, Yokeun) 한국사학회 2012 史學硏究 Vol.- No.107

          1005년부터 확인되는 동여진 해적의 고려 동해안 침입은 현종 연간 (1009~1031)에 가장 극심했다. 동여진 해적의 침략행위는 포로모타부의 범위에 포함되는 여진 집단들에 의한 것이었다. 포로모타부는 한반도 동북 해안지대와 두만강 중?하류 유역, 그리고 러시아 연해주 남부 뽀시옛만 연안 지역 등에 거주했던 여진족들을 지칭한 『요사』에서의 명칭이다. 동여진 해적의 침입은 백여 년 동안 지속되었지만, 포로모타부의 여진 부족들은 통일적인 정치체를 구성하지 못했던 까닭에, 침략의 규모나 주체에 있어서는 시기별로 차이가 있었다. 포로모타부의 세력이 가장 확대되었던 11세기 전반기에 동여진 해적의 활동이 가장 극심했으며, 1030년대 이후 여진 부족들에 대한 고려의 영향력이 점차 강화되자, 해적 활동은 소규모화되어 위축되었다. 비록 1050년 전후 한때 포로모타부와 거란의 관계가 깊어지면서 동여진 해적의 침입이 증가한 적도 있었으나, 11세기 후반에는 전반적으로 동여진 지역에 대한 고려의 통제력이 강고하게 유지되었고, 동여진 해적의 침략 역시 현저하게 감소하는 경향을 보이고 있었다. Eastern Jurchen pirates’ invasions on Goryeo’s east coastal regions, which had emerged since the year of 1005, were the most intense in King Hyeonjong’s reign. Eastern Jurchen piracy in the 11th century was committed by Jurchen people belonging to Jurchen tribes called ‘Poromota’. ‘Poromota’ was a collective name on Eastern Jurchen tribes recorded in 『Liaoshi(遼史)』, and Poromota Jurchen tribes mainly resided in Duman River’s middle and lower basin, Posyet Bay area of current Russian Maritime Province, and northeast coastal regions of the Korean Peninsula. Because Poromota Jurchen tribes could not establish their own united kingdom, despite Eastern Jurchen’s invasions continued for about a hundred years, various differences based on time series are seen in terms of invasions’ scale and main body. Eastern Jurchen pirates’ invasions were the most intense during the early 11th century when Poromota Jurchen’s influence was the strongest, but after the 1030’s Goryeo’s influence was more expanded toward Jurchen tribes and the piracy dramatically shrank in. Although Eastern Jurchen invasions suddenly increased in around the year of 1050 due to familiarized relations between Poromota Jurchen and the Khitans, in the late 11th century Goryeo’s control over Eastern Jurchen tribes was solidified and Eastern Jurchen piraties’ invasions outstandingly decreased.

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          고려시대 鄕․部曲의 성격 재검토

          정요근(Jeong, Yokeun) 한국사학회 2016 史學硏究 Vol.0 No.124

          본 논문에서는 고려시대 향․부곡의 분포 밀도가 높았던 충청도 서북부, 경상도 북부, 전라도 서남부 지역을 대상으로 하여, 향․부곡의 지리적 분포나 입지 조건, 규모 등을 분석하고, 그에 기초하여 향․부곡의 성격을 살펴보았다. 향․부곡은 군현 단위의 규모가 되지 못하는 지역에 설치된 것이며, 독자적인 군현이 될 만큼 토지나 인구가 풍부하지도 않았다. 대체로 향․부곡은 산간의 분지 지대나 하천의 하구, 해안의 개척지 등 경작지의 개간과 주민 이주를 통하여 새로이 개발된 지역에 위치하였다. 또한 향․부곡은 타 지역 주민의 이주, 지형적인 분리, 국가의 특별한 필요에 의한 인위적 조치 등으로 인하여, 주변의 군현 소속 일반 촌락과 구별되는 독자성과 자립성을 가졌다. 그런 까닭에 향․부곡이 특수 행정구역으로 편성되었던 것이다. 향․부곡 주민들에 대한 법제적 신분 차별은 개별 향․부곡의 독자성과 자립성 유지, 그리고 주민들의 타 지역 이탈을 방지하기 위한 것이다. 따라서 향․부곡의 주민들은 자기 지역에 긴박되어 세습적으로 거주하였고, 향․부곡은 이른바 계서적인 본관제적 사회질서의 하부에 자리 잡게 되었다. This article investigates the geographical distribution, locational condition and areal range of special residential districts called ‘hyang’ and ‘bugok.’ We examine characteristics of these districts in Chungcheong, Gyeongsang and Jeolla provinces of South Korea, specific regions where hyang and bugok districts were densely located. The hyang and bugok districts were located in areas that lacked large cultivated land area and population, and featured smaller special local administrative units. Mostly, the hyang and bugok districts were located in mountainous basin, river mouth and coastal land that were reclaimed cultivated lands or vacated through migration. On the basis of geographical isolation, the hyang and bugok districts had independence and autonomy distinguished from neighboring villages managed by local administrative units. Thus, the Goryeo government organized the hyang and bugok districts as special local administrative units. Legislative social discrimination on the hyang and bugok residents was aimed for maintaining independence and self-support, as well as the prevention of resident migration to other regions. Therefore, the hyang and bugok residents had to be bound and live in their districts for generations, and the hyang and bugok districts were socially positioned lower on the Bongwan system, Goryeo dynasty’s unique hierarchic social order.

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          [한국사] GIS 기법의 활용을 통한 조선후기 越境地의 복원

          정요근(Jeong, Yo-Keun) 역사학회 2014 역사학보 Vol.0 No.224

          Digital map making method can contribute to restoring the late Joseon period’s elaborate local administrative map on the basis of literature materials such as a record on the total number of the late Joseon’s houses and population called ‘Hogu-chongsu’. The restoration of the late Joseon’s local administrative map also visually shows us highly accurate and detailed information on territories of a county surrounded by other counties called ‘Wolgyeongji’ in that period. The visual restoration of the Joseon local administrative units through digital map making method unearthed the existing theory that Joseon’s Wolgyeongji completely disappeared in the year of 1906 is wrong. In reality, through this restoration work it is proved that some Wolgyeongji existed until the year of 1914 when the Japanese colonial government reorganized the local administrative units. Detailed information on the late Joseon’s Wolgyeongji was obtained by converting administrative boundary lines of the late Joseon period’s counties and townships into the form of digital historical geographic information layers. If the digital historical geographic information layers are accumulated through various research projects and the layers are shared among related scholars, study on areas which was not able to attempt by traditional method of reading existing literature materials will be available. The digitalized restoration of the late Joseon’s Wolgyeongji introduced in this article can be a meaningful example of new historical study methodology. The production of digital historical geographic map using geographic information system techniques should be accompanied by long-term and continuous financial supports by public research institutes.

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