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The U.S.A had negative understanding of Korea since the late 19th century. The negative understanding was that Korea couldn't reform and develop herself without the support and protection of outside world, not only because she didn't have sufficient capacity for self-government due to injustice, inefficiency, corruption and stagnation, but because she was located at the special geopolitical environment, having been a field of battle among China, Russia, and Japan. On the basis of this understanding, the U.S.A officially recognized Japanese aggression and ruling of Korea, and estimated that Japanese ruling contributed to the modernization of the Korean society. Also, the identical result of the negative understanding was applied to Korea before and after liberation from Japan(1945). The U.S.A thought that Korea should be placed under the international trusteeship for the peace of the north-eastern Asia before becoming an independent state because she didn't have sufficient capacity for self-government and was located at the center of conflict among the world powers. Therefore, the writer of this article thinks the American understanding of Korea is logically based on the theory of modernization which has to do with the viewpoint that Korea was stagnant and could be developed only by the support of outside world. But the U.S.A criticized that Japanese Imperialism could fail to realize the desired end because the ruling ways were wrong. According to the judgement of the U.S.A, Japan restricted the Korean people's participation in government, and deepened the discrimination and inequality between Koreans and Japanese through the Japan-and Japanese-oriented policies, and tried unreasonably to obliterate the nationality of Korea. Though this understanding was only sometimes brought up by American missionaries or diplomats as long as the friendly relation between the U.S.A and Japan was kept, it became the America's dominant viewpoint when the relation between the U.S.A and Japan changed from friendship to hostility because of the break of the Pacific War. In other words, the U.S.A concluded that Japan didn't properly accomplished the mission to reform and civilize Korea, though she recognized Japanese responsibility for it. According to the American observation, Japanese ruling was one of the harshest tyranny to be seen in modern times and Koreans were degraded to the condition of slavery. The writer of this article think that America's conclusion can be a watershed in that the U.S.A could criticize Japanese ruling over Korea though it was based on the theory of modernization. In this point, the logic of the America's observation of Korea was composed of binary strata called the theory of self-governmental colonialism on the basis of the theory of modernization. In brief, the times of colonial Korea which was described in the American observation were not only a barbaric age but the age in which Korean potential power of development grew at the same time. Though the U.S.A criticized that Japanese ruling was a tyranny, she judged that the fruits of Korea's self-development, the legacy of Japanese colonial development, Korea's overseas manpower improving leaders of independence movement, and Korean people's strong national identity oriented toward ani-Japanese independence contributed to the growth of its potential power under the Japanese ruling and to the formation of its capacity for self-government after liberation from Japan(1945). The writer of this article thinks that this is the important point which is different from the theory of colony-exploitation by Japanese imperialism or the theory of colony-modernization.
This paper analyzes why Terauchimasadake(寺內總督), Governor-general of Chosun(朝鮮), maintained the policy of coercive nation discrimination in spite of his self-avowed ruling philosophy of gradual assimilationism during the early 1910s. Terauchi held a historical view that the ancestors of Japan and Korea are identical. At this time, this view was connected with his conception that Chosun was very stagnant and therefore couldn't achieve a national independence. On the basis of this view, he asserted frequently that the imperial Japan could assimilate korea and the two nations, Japan and Korea, could be amalgamated into one. But he didn't have intention to carry out the policy of assimilationism totally in Korea. He judged that the total application of assimilationism to Korea was difficult, because the standard of Korean people was low, their national identification was very strong and their anti-Japan sentiment was not subdued. On the ground of this judgement, Terauchi adopted the policy of gradual assimilationism. However, the problem is that the gradual assimilationism itself was not carried out as a policy, though it was sloganized. Two points came out as the cause. On the one hand, Japan did not possess the power to assimilate Korea. On the other hand, the Korean people's strong sentiment for national identification and against Japanese imperialism deterred the drive of gradual assimilationism. Therefore, Terauchi selected the policy of coercive nation discrimination as the keynote of colonial policy. The policy was based upon the discriminative colonial rule which put its ruling subjects into three categories : the Japanese in Japan, the Japanese in Korea and the Korean. As a result, Terauchi's gendarmerie police system became the means and basis which kept up the policy of coercive nation discrimination.
This article focus on the analysis of historical meaning and position of the colonial experience of Koreans in the long early modern history, namely, the long twentieth century. The colonial capitalization of the Korean society and economy progressed rapidly and the Korean economy came to be subjected under the imperial economy of Japan. As a result, the differentiation, inequality and conflict between classes or between Koreans and Japanese were gradually intensified. On the other hand, the government-general of Japan aspired to exploit the sources of wealth by means of developing the modernity of technology in Korea under the Japanese ruling. Furthermore, it wanted to show off the superiority of its modern civilization and the power of the Japanese empire and to gain the Koreans over to its side. Due to this influence, Koreans had a tendency to be disunited in consciousness, action and movement. However, the government-general of Japan couldn't keep Koreans under her hegemonic control because of the inequality between nations or classes or geographical positions in sharing the benefits from the modernity of the technology. Confronted with this situation, the government-general of Japan had no choice but to mobilize the apparatus of monitor, repression, and club. Consequently, the modernity of liberation was controlled very tightly. The colonial modernity and the Korean society itself which was located in the big gap between the modernity of technology and the modernity of liberation were very unstable because of the inequality, division, and conflict between classes or between Koreans and Japanese. The principal agents of anti-Japan movement struggled to overcome the contradiction of the colonial regime and the colonial modernity by transcending their colonial experiences to envision their bright future. ln that process, they endeavored to prepare and practice a new modernization project, not only by resisting the repression, exploitation, and discrimination of the Japanese empire, but by overcoming the dissociation and discord among fellow Koreans. This project was a plan that the principal agents of anti-Japan movement reconstructed on the basis of the traditional ideas of equality and the modern ideology of democracy and socialism from the viewpoint of independence. The core of the project was to pursue an ideal of human emancipation, integration of nation, equality of nation and humankind, and world peace; that is, what is called "to complete the modernity of liberation. "The project also devised a program to accomplish the modernity of technology by increasing the production capacity and the standard of life and culture. The principal agents of anti-Japan movement could overcome the limitation of the past movement which had been just busy accepting the Japanese or Western modernity. In summary, the history of the Japanese occupation period was a process of the development in which Koreans could enlarge their capacity of judgement and opportunities to recompose the modernity and to plan a new modern age.
This article took notice how the customary ethnic discrimination instead of the ethnic discrimination by law and system had been practiced in the Ganggyeong(江景) commercial secondary school at which Korean and Japanese were trained together under the same environment and system during the Japanese occupation period. What I found out could be summarized as follows : First of all, the school authorities alloted an entrance quota of Korean and Japanese in proportion to the number of Japanese applicants for entrance to the school in the selection process of new students. This was a preference to Japanese applicants as well as an ethnic discrimination to Koreans. In the second, the school authorities and some among Japanese teachers who occupied the overwhelming majority of tile school teachers punished Korean students more severely and more frequently than Japanese in the process of the guidance in the life and behavior of students. In the last, the Japanese nation supremacists among Japanese teachers, a military officer in charge of military drill, policemen in charge of martial arts discriminated against Korean students when they evaluated the school records in some subjects. In addition, the school authorities and Japanese teachers graded Korean students lowlier than Japanese when they evaluated synthetically students by demeanor and records, though Korean students were more superior in the school records and received more prizes for good or perfect attendance than Japanese. In short, the school authorities and some Japanese teachers discriminated customarily against Korean students when they selected or guided or evaluated students under the same environment and system of education. The result of this research tells that Korean students usually underwent the customary ethnic discrimination of the school authorities and some Japanese teachers even at some few secondary schools in which Korean & Japanese students received an education together during the Japanese occupation period.