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Rice, barley and sorghum soiu, the neutral unaged spirit of distillated alcoholic beverages, were distilled in a pot-still with a valve tray column. Those chemical composition, furfural, oxymethylfurfural and 5-methyl-2-furfural of products and distilled inetrmates were analized with gas chromatography to imvestigate the variation of it’s content according to the conditions of distillating process, and the odor threshold of furfural was determined. Sojus were generally distilled at no more than 30% alcohol and general constituent contents in soju were different a little, and content of furfurals were as follows ; rice soju 1.07, barley soju 1.26 and sorghum soju 1.66㎎/100㎖ were found. Composition of furfural, oxymethylfurfural and 5-methyl-2-furfural was 0.64, 0.66 and 0.07㎎/100㎖ in sorghum soju. Elution of those furfurals during distillating was that furfural were in 40~60% alcohol distillate and oxymethylfurfural were in potable middle alcohol and 5-methey-2-furfural were in tail. Odor threshold of furfural in 30% ethylalcohol sol. by sniffing were 30000 ppb and by tasting were 700 ppb. Odor unit value by tasting of furfural were 1.5~2.4 and by sniffing were 0.3~0.55.
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본 연구는 집단미술치료를 게슈탈트 이론에 적용하여 북한이탈아동의 자기존중감과 또래 관계기술 향상에 어떠한 영향을 미치는지 연구 하였다. 본 연구를 위해 K시 북한이탈아동 지원 지역아동센터의 북한이탈아동 저학년 3명과, 남한아동 저학년 3명을 선정하여 16회기 에 걸쳐 주1회 90분 시행하였다. 측정도구로 Coopersmith(1967)의 연구를 참조하여 최보가 와 전귀연(1993)이 연구개발한 자기존중감 척도를 최상길(2005)이 수정・보완한 것을 사용 하였고, 또래관계기술 척도는 양윤란과 오경자(2005)이 새롭게 구성한 아동ㆍ청소년 또래관 계 기술척도(PRS-AC)를 북한이탈아동들이 어려워하는 단어만 쉬운 단어로 수정하여 신뢰 도 검증을 받아 사전ㆍ사후로 실시하였다. 또한 HTP그림검사를 사전ㆍ사후로 투사검사를 실시하여 변화를 찾아보았다. 아동의 변화의 정보를 수집하기 위해 활동 녹음을 바탕으로 한 축어록, 작업사진, 연구자와 연구보조자와의 관찰의 일관성 유지를 위해 ’행동관찰 기준 ‘을 정하여 일지를 작성하고 함께 분석하였다. 본 연구의 결과는 다음과 같다. 게슈탈트 이 론 집단미술치료가 북한이탈아동의 자기존중감과 또래관계기술 향상에 효과가 있었다. This study examines the effects of group art-therapy on North Korean refugee children's self-esteem and peer relational skills by applying Gestalt theory. The study was conducted once a week for 90 minutes each time for 16 sessions in total at a North Korean Refugee Children Care Center in K city. The subjects were three North Korean refugee children in the lower grades and three South Korean school children from the care center were recruited to form a control group. The methodology used in this study was 'self-esteem measure'. It was developed by Bo-ga Choi and Gui-yeon Jeon(1993) and revised by Sang-gil Choi(2005) based on research by Coopersmith(1967) and McChale and Chaighead(1988). Peer relational skills scale for children and adolescents(PRS-AC) was used for measuring peer relational skills, which was developed by Yoon-ran Yang(2004) based on previous studies(Caldarella & Merrell, 1997; Gresham & Elliott, 1990). Some vocabularies in PRS-AC were revised for North Korean refugee children through Cronbach's reliability test. Furthermore, pre- and post-therapy HTP painting test were carried out in order to detect unconscious changes which are not easily measured in traditional art theories or methods For qualitative analysis of their behavioral change, additional group was selected by another group of survey assistants equivalent to this study design criteria, and investigated by the typical research methods conducted in this study. The results of this study showed that Gestalt group art-therapy helps improve the subjects' self-esteem and peer relational skills.
A spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) of the thoracic spine is a rare space-occupying disease that accompanied with severe axial pain in the spine. Because there is the possibility of a significant neurological injury such as paraplegia, SSEH requires careful diagnosis and management. A SSEH is mainly caused by a coagulating disorder or anticoagulant medication, while certain cases have shown that this disease is related with spinal inflammatory conditions. A SSEH tends to occur in patients who have risk factors for hemorrhage. However, the incidence of SSEH is quite low, and there are few domestic reports of a SSEH in young adults who are without the risk factors for hemorrhage. We encountered a 25 years old young male without a prior significant medical history and he was suffering from severe back pain and paraplegia due to a SSEH at the thoracic spine. The early diagnosis was made via MRI. We report here on a favorable clinical outcome that was achieved with immediate operative treatment, and we include a review of the relevant literature.
Study Design: Review article. Objectives: This review aims to present relevant considerations for the surgical treatment of spinal meningioma and recently used surgical approaches. Summary of Literature Review: Since Victor Horsely reported surgical resection using laminectomy in 1,887, the surgical treatment of spinal meningioma has been expected to have better results than other spinal cord tumors. Materials and Methods: Review of the relevant articles. Results: The classification of surgical resection of spinal meningioma follows the Simpson classification, and the goal of surgical treatment is radical resection. For radical resection of spinal meningioma, the surgeon must consider the location, shape, calcification, degree of malignant differentiation, and postoperative complications. Conclusions: Spinal meningioma is a predominantly intradural extramedullary tumor, and good results can be expected through surgical treatment. The appropriate approach for surgical treatment depends on the anatomical location and shape of the tumor. Key words: Spinal cord, Meningioma, Surgery 연구 계획: 문헌고찰목적: 척수 수막종의 수술적 접근에 있어서 고려할 점과 최근의 수술적 접근에 대해서 소개하고자 한다. 선행 연구문헌의 요약: 1887년 Victor Horsely가 후궁절제술을 통한 절제술을 보고한 이래 다른 척수 종양들에 비해 수술적 치료로 좋은 결과를 기대할수 있었다. 대상 및 방법: 관련 연구 고찰결과: 척수 수막종의 수술적 절제에 대한 분류는 Simoson 분류를 따르며, 외과적 치료의 목표는 근치적 절제이다. 척수 수막종의 근치적 절제술을 위해서는 종양의 위치, 모양, 석회화, 악성분화 정도, 수술 후 합병증에 대한 고려가 필요하다. 결론: 척수 수막종은 호발하는 경막내 척수외종양으로 수술적 치료로 좋은 결과를 기대할 수 있다. 종양의 해부학적 위치 및 모양에 따른 적절한 접근법으로 수술적 치료를 고려할 수 있다. 약칭 제목: 척수 수막종의 수술적 치료
This studies were performed to develop a Korean traditional folk liquor namely Gangha-ju has been prepared at Bosung district in Korea, and manufacturing conditions and anti-oxidation activity and antimicrobial activity of Gangha-ju were investigated. Ethyl-alcohol 20% and 30% Gangha-ju were brewed with glutinous rice wine, distilled liquor and 6 herbs of ginger, cinnamon, etc. Chemical and physical properties of 30% Gangha-ju were acidity 0.22, pH 4.31, amino acidity 3.26, transmittance 59 and conductivity 911 ㎲/m, and 20% Gangha-ju were 0.43, 4.20, 6.26, 62 and 924㎲/m. Volatile flavor compounds of ethyl alcohol, acetic acid, butanol, n-amyl alcohol, iso-pentyl alcohol, ethyl acetate, butyl acetate, acetaldehyde and furfural were detected, and main aroma compounds of Gangha-ju were isopentyl alcohol and ethyl acetate. Anti-oxidation activity by DPPH method was evaluated 31.32%, and nitrite scavenging effect was 31.7%. Anti-microbial activity against several microorganisms was pronounced strong activity over a wide range of test organisms, and Leuconostoc mesenteroids and Salmonella Ttyphimurium, Staphylococcus epidermidis were found to be more sensitive to Gangha-ju than Eschericha coli and Aspergillus flavus.
The effect of chitosan in soybean koji preparation and characteristics of chitosan-koji were investigated. Aspergillus oryzae KCTC 6096 and Aspergillus kawachii KCCM 11458 was used for koji preparation. a-Amylase activity of soybean koji prepared with 0.25% 10cp chitosan was excellent relative to 30 cp chitosan and 1.6 times higher than non-added soybean koji. Acid and neutral protease activities of soybean koji prepared with 0.25%, 10 cp chitosan were showed simillary higher value than non-chitosna added koji. The period of koji preperation was reduced 30% by adding chitosan.
Oyijangachies, a traditional Korean brined cucumber liked cucumber pickle, were prepared brining cucumber into mayonnaise instead of traditional dipping sources(Kochujang, doenjang and ganjang). Cucumbers have been dipped in different NaCl solutions for 48 hrs. After dipping, brined cucumbers have been aged in mayonnaise for 30 days. The acidity, pH, salt content and firmness changes were measured among the cucumber which were treated by different solutions during aging. The acidity of mayonnaise cucumber pickle increase during aging respectively. The acidity and pH of the pickle dipped in 6% NaCl solution were 1.00~1.81 and 4.05~3.83, but that of the pickle in 25mM-CaCl_2 12% NaCl solution were 1.92~2.98 and 3.19~3.03 after 30 days aging. The pickle firmness of cucumber blossom end was increased after 30 days aging.