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The purpose of this study is to investigate into the different characteristics of the placement systems for exceptional children both in Korea and America. Exceptional children are those who need special education or special auxiliary services to accomplish educational goal, owing to their conditions of physical or psychological handicappedness. Traditionally these children are segregated by institutionalization or sending them to special schools. Nowadays, however, the trend for placement tends to be going into integration. The results of this study will contribute to finding problems in the areas of Korean special education in general and suggest some ideas of developing most appropriate placement system for exceptional children in Korea. In order to accomplish the purpose of this study, the development of placement system and the factors contributed to such development in two countries were studied and discussed. The data used in this study are from the literature and printed materials related to special education. The results of this study are as follows: The trend in special education placement is toward integration which aims to normailze the lives of exceptional children by placing them in regular classes most of the time, even during special services are being provided. There are eight kinds of placement system in America such as institutions, special schools, special classes, partially integrated special classes, resource rooms, itnerant teachers, teacher consultants, and mainstreaming movement, where as only two are found to be existed in Korea, special schools and special classes. Factors contributed to such development in America are found to be multiple from changes of social climate, political movement to educational resources, while only a little action on the part of the government and private elaborations of some interested individuals have caused the development in Korea. One of the two significant differences between the two countries is that there has not been developed institutional system in Korea, which has attributed in many aspects for the development of special education in America. Another is that there has not yet developed in Korea any system of integration which followed special classes in America. Based on the results of the study, suggestions and perspectives for developing desirable placement system in special education programs in Korea are discussed.
This study aims to investigate the meaning negotiation process between teachers and students in online video conference class. 128 cyber university students participated in the study for 12 weeks. Student survey, recorded video conversation and teachers’ weekly comments were analyzed for the study. The research results show that unlike offline class, the students in video class actively initiated the negotiation of meaning by employing various negotiation signals. About 64.4% of the negotiation of meaning was initiated by the students. Students used confirmation checks most often, but the types of negotiation signals were varied across the proficiency levels. Teachers used clarification checks more, but utilized their meaning negotiation efforts more as scaffolding to help learners construct their utterances. Teachers also actively utilized text-chat during the video conference to negotiate the meaning and provide the correctional feedback. Both teachers and students used over 1/4 of their conversation for meaning negotiation. In order to elicit more negotiation efforts from the students, teachers need to bring more information gap tasks and diverse topics, and the amount of teacher talk also needs to be controlled. The improvement in students’ lead of conversation, turn-taking, and negotiation efforts over the semester indicate that online video conference class can be an effective tool to promote the students' English speaking fluency.
The purpose of the study is to investigate college students' use of smart phone applications for the purpose of English learning and their degree of awareness of current AI-based English learning applications and chatbots. For this purpose, the researcher administered survey questions to 87 college students two times in one semester. The analysis of survey data yielded the following findings: First, majority of the students were participating the autonomous mobile learning outside of the classroom. The most popular applications students used were TOEIC test preparation apps followed by Youtube and other English learning apps. Students' lack of information of proper apps and their disinterest were revealed as the major reasons for the low use of English learning apps. Second, it was found that students were rarely aware of AI based English applications and their actual experience of AI technology is extremely limited. Third, students need English teachers' guidance and advice in selecting appropriate English learning apps for their own mobile learning. The types of apps students favored and the teachers' role in promoting self-directed learners are also discussed.
The purpose of this study was to empirically examine the relationship among dance sports participants’ body-esteem, flow experience and psychological well‐being. A predictive, Non-experimental design was used to test the model in a sample of 492 dance sports participants in dance sports center or a cultural center in Seoul and Kyunggi province. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire which is Body-esteem Scale by Kim(2007) and Flow Experience as identified by Yook(2005) and Psychological Well-being as identified by Kim, Kim & Cha(2001). The statistical methods utilized in the study for analyzing the collected data were reliability analysis, descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA and standard multiple regression analysis from the results of this study, the following conclusions were drawn: First, body-esteem, flow experience and psychological well‐being of dance sports participants differ statistically and significantly according to dance sports participation. Second, dance sports participants’ body-esteem scale had statistically positive effect on flow experience and psychological well- being. Third, dance sports participants’ flow experience had statistically positive effect on psychological well- being.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate elementary and preschool teachers' literacy approaches and their beliefs related to learning and literacy acquisition. Specifically, teachers' use of literacy approaches and its variances according to children's age, and teachers' beliefs related to learning and literacy acquisition in terms of constructivism were examined. Subjects were 153 first and second grade teachers and 151 preschool teachers sampled from 25 elementary school and 36 preschool located in Busan. A Questionnaire containing 3 categories with 24 likert-scaled questions was developed with the reference of Hopkin(1995), Wortham(1998), Chung(1998), and Yoo(2000) to collect data. Statistical varification was done using MANOVAs. The results were discussed in the perspective of balanced approach between whole language and direct instruction. The conclusions derived from the discussion on the results are as follows: Firstly, while there's no difference in the use of whole-language approach between elementary and preschool teachers, elementary teachers use more skills approach than preschool teachers do. Therefore, young children probably would experience some difficulties in adapting themselves when they enter elementary schools. Secondly, elementary and preschool teachers' use of literacy approaches do not vary according to the age of their children. In the perspective that five-year olders should be provided with more direct instruction on decoding skills than their four-year old counterparts should be, this might be a problematic finding which is desirable to be incorporated into the training programs for prospective and incumbent teachers. Thirdly, the beliefs of elementary and preschool teachers related to learning and literacy acquisition reveals comparable constructivism to their literacy approaches respectively. Therefore, teachers of both parties use literacy approaches with supportive philosophical grounds.