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고분자가 adefovir dipivoxil(AD)과 suberic acid(SUB)의 공결정 형성에 미치는 영향을 연구하였다. 고분자 첨가제는 poly(ethylene glycol)(PEG)과 poly(acrylic acid)(PAA)를 이용하였다. 용액에서 AD와 SUB를 혼합한 후에 고분자를 첨가하여 공결정을 제조했을 때는, 고분자의 영향은 결정모양과 결정성을 일부 변화시키는 것에 한정되었는데, 이러한 영향은 고분자 없이도 용액에 과량의 SUB를 이용하거나 용매첨가 분쇄법으로 유도할 수 있었다. 한편,용액에서 AD와 고분자를 혼합한 후에 SUB를 첨가하여 공결정을 제조했을 때는, PEG의 경우 공결정의 변화를 훨씬 효과적으로 유도하였는데 결정성을 기준으로 같은 농도에서 3배 이상의 효과를 보였다. 또한 PAA의 경우에는결정의 형성을 완전히 억제하는 효과를 보였다. 본 연구의 결과는 공결정 형성에 미치는 고분자의 영향을 단순히혼합순서를 바꾸어서 조율할 수 있는 예를 보여 주었다. The effects of polymers on the cocrystallization of adefovir dipivoxil (AD) and suberic acid (SUB) were investigated. The polymeric additives in the present study were poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA). When the polymers were added to the solution of AD and SUB, their effects were limited to the morphology and crystallinity of the AD/SUB cocrystal, which could be also achieved without polymeric additives by the excess amount of SUB in the solution or through the solvent-assisted grinding. When the polymers were mixed with AD before adding SUB in the solution, PEG was dramatically more effective at the same amount with possible alteration of the cocrystal structure. Also, PAA completely inhibited the formation of crystals. The present study demonstrated that the effects of polymers on the cocrystallization could be tuned by simply modifying the mixing strategy.
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Objectives : The purpose of this study is finding out relation of somnipathy and Yin-gyo-maek ㆍYang-gyo-maek. Methods : 1. We reviewed medical literature about somnipathy and Yin-gyo-maek ㆍYang-gyo-maek. 2. We studied relation of somnipathy and Yin-gyo-maekㆍYang-gyo-maek. Results : 1. Yin-gyo-maek ㆍYang-gyo-maek is channel that is crossing Yin(陰) and Yang(陽). 2. The physio-pathologic phenomenons such as, “Yin-gyo-man(陰 滿)”, “Yang-gyo-ham(陽 陷)” are caused by circulatory disorder of depending qi (衛氣). 3. Sleep disoders (such as, hyposomnia, hypersomnia) are caused by the physio-pathologic phenomenon such as, “Yin-gyo-man”, “Yang-gyo-ham” Conclusions : 1. The period of awakening and sleeping is relative to circulation of depending qi (衛氣) and function of Yin-gyo-maek. Yang-gyo-maek 2. Acupuncture therapy on Yin-gyo-maek․Yang-gyo-maek has significant effect to somnipathy.
Recently, Concern of non-point pollutant was increased that depending on the development of point source reduction policy. Non-point pollutant was not easy to monitoring and treatment without professional experience in fields. Runoff characteristic of non-point pollutant has various pattern cause of several parameters such as rainfall, rainfall intensity and antecedent dry days(ADD) etc. For this reason, Studies of reducing non-point pollutant using constructed wetland(CW) has attracted attention. In this study, It was investigated about inflow characteristics of BOD, SS, TN and TP by total of 20 monitoring, and It was used to considered the relationship of reduction rate and loads by statistically analyzed. The reduction efficiency of the CW was calculated by Effect mean concentration (EMC). It was used to determined the main effect parameters using a correlation of each parameter. The results of correlation analysis, It was observed that EMC of BOD and COD were significantly affected by rainfall. The reduction facilities of non-point pollutant need more various studies for characteristics of each facilities by significantly parameter.
Objectives : The purpose of this study is finding out relation of somnipathy and Yin-gyo-maek(陰?脈) Yang-gyo-maek(陽?脈). Methods : 1. We reviewed medical literature about somnipathy and Yin-gyo-maek(陰?脈) . Yang-yo-maek(陽?脈). 2. We studied relation of somnipathy and Yin-gyo-maek(陰?脈) . Yang-gyo-maek(陽?脈). Results : 1. Yin-gyo-maek(陰?脈) Yang-gyo-maek(陽?脈) is channel that is crossing Yin(陰) and Yang(陽). 2. The physio-pathologic phenomenons such as, 'Yin-gyo-maek(陰?脈)', 'Yang-gyo-maek(陽?脈)' are caused by circulatory disorder of depending qi (衛氣). 3. Sleep disoders (such as, hyposomnia, hypersomnia) are caused by the physio-pathologic phenomenon such as, 'Yin-gyo-maek(陰?脈)', 'Yang-gyo-maek(陽?脈)' Conclusions : 1. The period of awakening and sleeping is relative to circulation of depending qi (衛氣) and function of Yin-gyo-maek(陰?脈) Yang-gyo-maek(陽?脈) 2. Acupuncture therapy on Yin-gyo-maek(陰?脈) Yang-gyo-maek(陽?脈) has significant etfect to somnipathy.
Through-silicon-via (TSV)를 포함하고 있는 3차원 적층 반도체 패키지에서 구조적 변수에 따른 열응력의 변화를 살펴보기 위하여 유한요소해석을 수행하였다. 이를 통하여 TSV를 포함하고 있는 3차원 적층 반도체 패키지에서 웨이퍼 간 접합부의 지름, TSV 지름, TSV 높이, pitch 변화에 따른 열응력의 변화를 예측하였다. 최대 von Mises 응력은 TSV의 가장 위 부분과 Cu 접합부, Si, underfill 계면에서 나타났다. TSV 지름이 증가할 때, TSV의 가장 위 부분에서의 von Mises 응력은 증가하였다. Cu 접합부 지름이 증가할 때, Si과 Si 사이의 Cu 접합부가 Si, underfill과 만나는 부분에서 von Mises 응력이 증가하였다. Pitch가 증가할 때에도, Si과 Si 사이의 Cu 접합부가 Si, underfill과 만나는 부분에서 von Mises 응력이 증가하였다. 한편, TSV 높이는 von Mises 응력에 크게 영향을 미치지 못하였다. 따라서 TSV 지름이 작을수록, 그리고 pitch가 작을수록 기계적 신뢰성은 향상되는 것으로 판단된다. Finite-element analyses were conducted to investigate the thermal stress in 3-dimensional stacked wafers package containing through-silicon-via (TSV), which is being widely used for 3-Dimensional integration. With finite element method (FEM), thermal stress was analyzed with the variation of TSV diameter, bonding diameter, pitch and TSV height. It was revealed that the maximum von Mises stresses occurred at the edge of top interface between Cu TSV and Si and the Si to Si bonding site. As TSV diameter increased, the von Mises stress at the edge of TSV increased. As bonding diameter increased, the von Mises stress at Si to Si bonding site increased. As pitch increased, the von Mises stress at Si to Si bonding site increased. The TSV height did not affect the von Mises stress. Therefore, it is expected that smaller Cu TSV diameter and pitch will ensure mechanical reliability because of the smaller chance of plastic deformation and crack initiation.
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본 증례 2례 모두 요통(腰痛), 좌하지인통(左下肢引痛)을 호소하며 좌족하수(左足下垂)를 동반하여 내원했으며, L-spine MRI상 L4-5, L5-S1의 추간판탈출증을 진단받은 경우로, 외상의 병력이 없었고 이로 미루어 보아 L5 신경근과 S1 신경근 손상으로 발생된 족하수(足下垂)로 진단하였다. 입원치료 중 추나요법과 추나약물요법으로 요통(腰痛)과 하지부(下肢部) 인통(引痛)은 소설되었으나 족하수(足下垂)는 별다른 호전을 보이지 않아 족하수(足下垂)치료를 위해 M.S.T.를 시행하여 족배굴근력이 건측에 비해 <증례1>의 경우 30%에서 70%로, <증례2>의 경우 10%에서 70%의 향상을 나타내었다. 그리고 치료기간 중 SLR 검사와 족하수(足下垂)와의 상관관계는 발견할 수 없었으며, 호전속도는 Disc 탈출정도와 연관성이 있었다. 하지만 저자가 관찰, 치료한 본 증례 2례는 그 해당 임상증례가 많지 않았기에 향후 좀 더 다양한 임상증례와 비교연구가 뒤따라야 할 것이다. The purpose of this study is to report the patients with common peroneal nerve palsy, who improved by motion style treatment.(M.S.T.) The clinical study on 2 case of patients with herniation of nucleus pulposus, L4-5, L5-S1 combined foot drop, who had been hospitalized in Ja-Seng Oriental Hospital. We checked the motor grade and subjective improvement at interval of 3days under the treatment of M.S.T. After 2-3 weeks of treatment, the movement and power of ankle joint improved to nearly normal range. The subjective improvement was 70% compared with Rt. ankle and range of active motion increased from Gr.1-2 to Gr.4
Since Personal Communication Service(PCS) companies began their first commercial services on October 1 in 1997, there have been raised in the PCS market such problems as an enormous overlapping investment by three companies, a danger of suffering a deficit after four or five years, a difficulty of communication in shadow areas for lack of base stations and a potential bankruptcy by over-heated competition. Therefore, 'Korea Telecom Freetel Co., Ltd.' should cope with these problems by putting a great emphasis on the differentiation policy between companies, building a large number of base stations, consolidating its relationship with domestic affiliated companies on the side of marketing, emphasizing its historical image in connection with 'Korea Telecom' on the level of advertisement strategy, reducing expenditures caused by excessive competition and lastly stabilizing its financial status through the expansion of new subscribers.
This study shows the effect of Numerical Flexibility which was regarded as social problem and negative to public on Organizational Citizenship Behavior(OCB), and thereafter derives future investigation plan as follows. Proposal 1 : The high unstability of employment of organization and low opportunity of job hunting will influence positive effect on OCB. Proposal 2 : The type of employment, job and wheather contingent job is involuntary or voluntary will influence on OCB differently. Proposal 3 : The high union committment of workers who dissatisfied with work conditions will influence negative effect on OCB.
This study was conducted to develop a simple selection method for herbicide-resistance weeds. Two methods, designated "seedling method" and "stem node method" were employed for screening of barnyardgrass against propanil and butachlor. In the seedling method, shoot and root growth of barnyardgrass were significantly inhibited at quarter of the recommended herbicide rate, while in the stem node method, the similar inhibition was obtained at half of the recommended rate. Thus, it was concluded that the seedling method is more simple and quick method to evaluate response of barnyardgrass to propanil and butachlor compared to stem node method.