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Interleukin (IL)-10 exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects by suppression of both T-help (Th) 1 and Th2 cells. Previous studies have reported that IL-10 can ameliorate various inflammatory disorders. The present study was performed to examine whether IL-10 plasmid DNA could suppress development of atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice, as an initial step towards the development of an appliance for use in dogs with AD. Intradermal injection of IL-10 plasmid DNA markedly inhibited the development of AD-like skin lesions, as evidenced by a marked decrease in skin symptoms and reduced inflammation within the skin lesions. Efficacy was confirmed by significant decreases in eosinophil ratio and serum IgE concentration, and a reduction in the number of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from the ear. Moreover, relative mRNA expression levels of IL-4 and interferon-γ in the skin lesions of mice injected with IL-10plasmid DNA were also decreased compared with those of control mice. Of note, higher serum IL-10 levels in mice injected with IL-10 plasmid DNA were maintained compared with those in control mice. Taken together, the results indicate that IL-10 plasmid DNA can suppress the development of AD-like skin lesions by suppressing both Th1 and Th2 cell responses. Beneficial effects of IL-10 plasmid DNA may be expected in dogs with AD.
Background: Relaxin is a transforming growth factor β1 antagonist. To determine the effects of relaxin on scar reduction, we investigated the scar remodeling process by injecting relaxin-expressing adenoviruses using a pig scar model. Methods: Scars with full thickness were generated on the backs of Yorkshire pigs. Scars were divided into two groups (relaxin [RLX] and Control). Adenoviruses were injected into the RLX (expressing relaxin) and Control (not expressing relaxin) groups. Changes in the surface areas, color index and pliability of scars were compared. Results: Fifty days after treatment, the surface areas of scars decreased, the color of scars was normalized, and the pliability of scars increased in RLX group. Conclusion: Relaxin-expressing adenoviruses improved the surface area, color, and pliability of scars. The mechanism of therapeutic effects on scar formation should be further investigated.
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Germanium biotite (GB) is an aluminosilicate mineral containing 36 ppm germanium. The present study was conducted to better understand the effects of GB on immune responses in a mouse model, and to demonstrate the clearance effects of this mineral against Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in experimentally infected pigs as an initial step towards the development of a feed supplement that woul promote immune activity and help prevent diseases. In the mouse model, dietary supplementation with GB enhanced concanavalin A (ConA)-induced lymphocyte proliferation and increased the percentage of CD3+CD8+ T lymphocytes. In pigs experimentally infected with PRRSV, viral titers in lungs and lymphoid tissues from the GB-fed group were significantly decreased compared to those of the control group 12 days post-infection. Corresponding histopathological analyses demonstrated that GB-fed pigs displayed less severe pathological changes associated with PRRSV infection compared to the control group, indicating that GB promotes PRRSV clearance. These antiviral effects in pigs may be related to the ability of GB to increase CD3+CD8+ T lymphocyte production observed in the mice. Hence, this mineral may be an effective feed supplement for increasing immune activity and preventing disease.
Antimicrobials are used as feed additives to improve growth performance and to prevent subclinical disease challenge in industrial animals. However, these drugs can lead to the development of resistant strains of bacteria. Shiitake mushrooms (SM) (Lentinula edodes) have long been popular as a health food in East Asia. Moreover, SM-derived polysaccharides are well-known as immunostimulants that possess antimicrobial properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the immunoprophylactic effects of SM against Bordetella bronchiseptica infection in mice as an initial step towards the development of eco-friendly feed additives to reduce the use of antimicrobials. Although SM had no effect on body weight gain under the un-infected conditions, SM alleviated progressive weight loss and helped in the recovery of body weight in B. bronchiseptica infected mice. Dietary supplementation with SM reinforced bacterial clearance in the infected mice. Of note, SM markedly increased the percentage of various T lymphocytes and the relative mRNA expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ in the bronchial lymph node early in the infection. Taken together, these findings suggest that SM could help in the improvement of body weight gain during B. bronchiseptica infection and may enhance the protective immune activity against a subclinical disease challenge, such as B. bronchiseptica infection in mice, probably by a strong stimulation of non-specific immune responses. Hence, SM may provide an alternative to reduce use of antimicrobials. Confirmation of the beneficial effects of SM as a feed additive is now required in industrial animals.
Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) of the breast is a benign mesenchymal lesion with incidental histologic findings. Surgical excision is recommended as the treatment of choice for PASH, although the recurrence rates after excision range from 15% to 22%. A 46-year-old-female presented with a six-month history of bilateral breast enlargement and painful sensation mimicking inflammatory carcinoma. Imaging studies demonstrated innumerable enhancing nodules in both breasts. Due to the growth of the lesions and progressive clinical symptoms, bilateral subcutaneous mastectomy was performed. Grossly, the specimens were round and well-circumscribed, and the histologic examination revealed PASH. After mastectomy, we created a pocket with the pectoralis major muscle and a lower skin flap, which was deepithelized. Anatomical mammary implants were inserted, and the nipple areolar complex was transferred to a new position as a free graft. The aesthetic result was satisfactory after twelve months of follow-up.
Background Reconstruction of oropharyngeal defects after resection of oropharyngeal cancer is a significant challenge. The purpose of this study is to introduce reconstruction using a combination of a buccinator myomucosal flap and a buccal fat pad flap after cancer excision and to discuss the associated anatomy, surgical procedure, and clinical applications. Methods In our study, a combination of a buccinator myomucosal flap with a buccal fat pad flap was utilized for reconstruction after resection of oropharyngeal cancer, performed between 2013 and 2015. After oropharyngectomy, the defect with exposed vital structures was noted. A buccinator myomucosal flap was designed and elevated after an assessment of the flap pedicle. Without requiring an additional procedure, a buccal fat pad flap was easily harvested in the same field and gently pulled to obtain sufficient volume. The flaps were rotated and covered the defect. In addition, using cadaver dissections, we investigated the feasibility of transposing the flaps into the lateral oropharyngeal defect. Results The reconstruction was performed in patients with squamous cell carcinoma. The largest tumor size was 5 cm×2 cm (length×width). All donor sites were closed primarily. The flaps were completely epithelialized after four weeks, and the patients were followed up for at least six months. There were no flap failures or postoperative wound complications. All patients were without dietary restrictions, and no patient had problems related to mouth opening, swallowing, or speech. Conclusions A buccinator myomucosal flap with a buccal fat pad flap is a reliable and valuable option in the reconstruction of oropharyngeal defects after cancer resection for maintaining functionality.
Background: Autologous fat graft has become a useful technique for correction of acquiredcontour deformity in reconstructed breasts. However, there remains controversial regardingthe efficacy and safety of the practice for reconstructive breast surgery. Methods: A retrospective review was performed on 102 patients who had secondary fatgrafting after breast reconstruction. Fat harvest, refinement and injection were done byColeman’s technique. All patients were followed up postoperatively within 1 month and after6 months including physical examination and ultrasonography. In 38 patients, the reabsorptionrate was calculated by serial changes of thickness between skin and pectoral fascia in theultrasonic finding. Locoregional recurrence rate was compared with control group of 449patients who had breast reconstruction without fat graft in the same time period. Results: Average 49.3 mL fat was injected into each breast. The most common location of fatgraft was upper pole, followed by axilla, lower and medial breasts. During 28.7 months ofaverage follow-up period, 2.9% of total patients had symptoms of palpable mass on fat graftside and ultrasonography identified fat necrosis and cyst formation in 17.6% of the patients. Calculated fat reabsorption rate was 32.9%. Locoregional recurrence was occurred in 1 patient(0.9%) and the rate was not different significantly with control group (2%). Conclusions: Although further studies are required to provide surgeons with definitiveguidelines for the implementation of fat grafting, we propose autologous fat graft is anefficient and safe technique for secondary breast reconstruction.