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Objective: Th is study aimed to investigate the current data regarding age, sex, and Angle Classifi cation of Korean orthodontic patients and infl uence of these factors on the tendency to undergo extraction and orthognathic surgery. Methods: Th e recent trends of Korean orthodontic patients were assessed using questionnaire survey. The questionnaires were e-mailed to orthodontists who met the study criteria; 58% of the orthodontists opened the e-mails, and 27.7% replied to the e-mails. In all, the medical records of 11,340 patients who underwent orthodontic treatment at private clinics and small dental hospitals in Korea were analyzed. Results: Th e percentage of female patients in the study sample was 69.6%, and the average age of the patients was 19.87 years. Th e percentage of patients who were older than 19 years was 50.2%. Class II and Class III malocclusions were noted in 33.6% and 23.6% of patients, respectively. Extraction and orthognathic surgery were performed in 60.4% and 6.9% of patients, respectively. Conclusions: The results showed that there were a high percentage of adult, Class II malocclusion and extraction patients in private practices and small dental hospitals during the study period. Further, a relatively high proportion of adult patients opted to undergo orthognathic surgery.
Objective: Investigation of the anti-stress effects of Sihosogansan Methods: Passive avoidance test(PAT) was performed after applying immobilization stress in water to rats. Also, forced swimming test(FST) was performed to another rats and after FST, the degree of Tyrosine Hydroxylase(TH) expression was measured with immunohistochemical method in the regions of locus coeruleus(LC) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). Results: In the PAT after immobilization stress in water, response latency was significantly increased in the Sihosogansan(400mg/kg) group in comparison with the control group. In the FST, immobility was significantly decreased in the Sihosogansan groups (100mg/kg, 400mg/kg), comparing with the control group. Stress-induced TH increases were suppressed in the Sihosogansan groups (100mg/kg, 400mg/kg) at the LC and the VTA region respectively. Conclusion: Sihosogansan can improve memory ability of rats, reduce behavior of depression in rats, decrease TH-immunoreactive cells at the LC and VTA region in rat, and it may be concluded that Sihosogansan has significant effect in reducing stress.
The network coding mechanism has attracted much attention because of its advantage of enhanced networkthroughput which is a desirable characteristic especially in a multi-hop wireless network with limited linkcapacity such as the device-to-device (D2D) communication network of 5G. COPE proposes to use the XORbasednetwork coding in the two-hop wireless network topology. For multi-hop wireless networks, theDistributed Coding-Aware Routing (DCAR) mechanism was proposed, in which the coding conditions for twoflows intersecting at an intermediate node are defined and the routing metric to improve the codingopportunity by preferring those routes with longer queues is designed. Because the routes with longer queuesmay increase the delay, DCAR is inefficient in delivering real-time multimedia traffic flows. In this paper, wepropose a network coding-aware routing protocol for multi-hop wireless networks that enhances DCAR byconsidering traffic load distribution and link quality. From this, we can achieve higher network throughput andlower end-to-end delay at the same time for the proper delivery of time-sensitive data flow. The Qualnet-basedsimulation results show that our proposed scheme outperforms DCAR in terms of throughput and delay.
In order to control indoor air quality and save energy, it is needed to install a suitable ventilation system equipped with heat exchanger for heat recovery. The purpose of this research is to find the factors affecting the performance of paper heat exchanger for exhaust heat recovery, which can be applied directly to the conventional ventilation unit, air- purifier, and air-conditioning system. In this study, thermal performance and pressure loss of the paper heat exchanger are measured and compared at various operating conditions. The effectiveness of sensible, latent and total heat at the face velocity of 0.75m/s are 77%, 47% and 57% in the cooling condition and 77%, 59% and 69% in the heating condition, respectively. The effectiveness for sensible heat is only affected by velocity. On the other hand, the effectiveness for latent heat is affected by temperature and relative humidity.
The purpose of this research is to develop high efficiency plastic plate heat exchangers which can be substituted for conventional aluminum plate heat exchangers. Four simulation models of plastic plate heat exchangers are designed and simulated: that is, flat plate type, turbulent promoter type, corrugate type and dimple type heat exchanger. The flat plate type is designed as the reference model in order to evaluate how much thermal performance increases. The turbulent promoter type is fabricated with cylindrical-type vortex generators and rib-type turbulent promoters. The corrugate type is obtained from the conventional stainless steel compact heat exchangers, which are called the herringbone-type compact heat exchangers. The dimple type has a number of dimples on its surface. In this study, the flow and heat transfer characteristics of the plastic plate heat exchanger are investigated using numerical simulation and compared with experimental results. Numerical simulation is carried out using the FLUENT code. The flows are assumed as a three-dimensional, incompressible and turbulent model. The computational analysis and experimental results both show that the friction coefficient and Nu number is highest in the corrugate type. The tendency of numerical simulation results is in good agreement with that of the experimental results.
The goal of high-energy physics is to understand the basic properties of elementary particles and their interactions. High-energy physics is usually conducted at major accelerator sites, in which detector design, construction, signal processing, data acquisition, and data analysis are performed on a large scale. However, in order to study high-energy physics anytime and anywhere even if we are not on-site at accelerator laboratories, we have created a new research paradigm, e-Science. The e-Science for high-energy physics has three components: data production, data processing, and data analysis. In this paper, we focus on the data processing of e-Science for high-energy physics. We show current implementations and experiments of data processing for the ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) Tier 2 center and for CDF (Collider Detector at Fermilab) grid farms. The goal of high-energy physics is to understand the basic properties of elementary particles and their interactions. High-energy physics is usually conducted at major accelerator sites, in which detector design, construction, signal processing, data acquisition, and data analysis are performed on a large scale. However, in order to study high-energy physics anytime and anywhere even if we are not on-site at accelerator laboratories, we have created a new research paradigm, e-Science. The e-Science for high-energy physics has three components: data production, data processing, and data analysis. In this paper, we focus on the data processing of e-Science for high-energy physics. We show current implementations and experiments of data processing for the ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) Tier 2 center and for CDF (Collider Detector at Fermilab) grid farms.
Although the globe is the most typical valve to control high pressure drop in piping system, it is very hard to figure out the characteristics of flow field in the globe valve caused by its complex geometry. So there is very few studies to find out flow characteristics of globe valve. In this study, numerical analysis for flow field in the globe valve is carried out using the FLUENT code which is commercial CFD program. Pressure drop through the globe valve is also measured to verify the results come from numerical analysis. Comparing experiment with numerical analysis, two results are very close to each other.
We report on the dependence of the reduced metallic percolation paths of single-wall carbonnanotube-network thin-films (SCNTFs) on the channel aspect ratio and the number of strips (N_(strip)). A longer channel length (L_C) and the existence of strips in the channel region limit the number of metallic percolation conducting paths existing between the source and the drain in SCNTF transistors. Increasing the channel aspect ratio threefold resulted in an increase in the on/off current ratio (I_(on)/I_(off)) by 246%. We also observed that introducing 15 strips into the channel increased I_(on)/I_(off) by 859%, which was attributed to a reduction in the number of metallic percolation paths formed between the source and the drain. The results show that with a higher aspect ratio and with strips introduced into the channels, the semiconducting behavior of solution-processed SCNTF transistors can be enhanced.