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In searching for a methodology to resolve the vast number of genocide cases in the year of 1994 pending disposition, Rwanda has adopted a program called Gacaca, based on Rwanda's traditional customary dispute resolution system. Gacaca is one of the processes that Rwanda is utilizing to respond to the immediate need to move forward with genocide prosecutions, as well as deal with the long-term psychological need for national reconciliation and unity. Gacaca reinforces, but is not intended to replace, the formal justice system such as the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda and domestic criminal courts. As a system rooted in Rwanda's traditions, Gacaca takes advantage of Rwandan cultural characteristics and capitalizes on a historical unity of the collective Rwandan experience. Gacaca also gives the Rwandan people an opportunity to take part in shaping their own country, and is restorative in facilitating community reintegration process that is seen as necessary in addressing the fundamental causes of the genocide. Gacaca is also an experiment in utilizing traditional or customary justice processes to address vast peace and reconciliation issues. Gacaca is an important experiment in the field of human rights, as Rwandan citizens make a proactive attempt to build a better future for the country through healing the conflict which was one of the largest human rights catastrophes in the world history. Therefore, Gacaca system will give us a key in dealing with the aftermath of both Korea's human rights disaster in the past (such as Geochang Occurrence, Nogun-ri Occurrence and 5.18 Pro-democracy Fighting) and two Koreas' unification in the future.
In this study, pyrolysis fuel oil (PFO) was reformed using heat-treatment and UV irradiation, along with across-linker at various concentrations. Oxygen elements of the reformed pitches were increased as theamount of the cross-linker was increased. UV-treated reformed pitches were also composed of morearomatic carbon compounds than pitches reformed by heat-treatment. The softening points of thereformed pitches were measured in the range of 113.6–181.1 C according to the quantity of cross-linkerused. The UV irradiation reforming is practical and helpful for the production of more aromatic pitch.
2018년 12월 20일 대한민국 해군이 한일 중간수역에서 북한 조난 선박을 구조하던 중 사격통제레이더를 사용하고 이를 일본 초계기를 조준하였는지 여부를 둘러싸고 공방이 벌어졌다. 당시 이는 다음 세 가지 이유에서 한일 안보 협력 관계의 적신호를 의미하고 있었다. 첫째, 당시 한일 초계기 공방은 독도 문제가 아니어도 한국이 한일 중간수역에서 일본의 도발에 직면할 수 있음을 보여주었다. 둘째, 한일간 공방이 이루어지는 사실관계(한국 군함 추적 레이더 운용 여부와 일본 초계기의 위협 접근 여부)의 법적 결과가 결코 가볍지 않았다. 경우에 따라서는 부대 자위권에 기초한 무력대응이 허용되는 중대한 사항이었다. 셋째, 일본은 한일 중간수역에서 한국과 협력하여 국제법상 해상조난자 구조 의무를 이행하는 대신 오히려 한국 군함과 대치하여 구조 활동을 방해하였다. 이에 여기에서는 당시 일 초계기 공방 관련 세 가지 법적 쟁점(한일 중간수역, 부대 자위권 행사 요건, 해상 조난 관련 국제법적 의무)을 기술한 후, 향후 한국의 대응방안에 대하여 검토하였다. The Japanese Government claimed that the Navy of the Republic of Korea (hereinafter referred to as "Korea") had used fire control radars during the rescue of North Korean vessels in the joint fishing zone on December 20, 2018, and the Korean Government vehemently denied it. The diplomatic dispute signified the red light of security cooperation between Korea and Japan for the following three reasons. Firstly, the P-1 Maritime Patrol Aircraft issue showed that Korea could face Japan's provocations in the joint fishing zone even if Dokdo issue is not concerned. Secondly, the legal consequences of the issue were not insignificant because Korean Navy's fire control radar operation and Japanese P-1 Maritime Patrol Aircraft's approach towards Korean warship in a dangerous manner could have allowed for the armed response of the opposite based on the right to unit self-defense. Lastly, Japan interfered with the rescue activities instead of fulfilling , in cooperation with the ROK, the obligations to rescue the victims in distress at sea under the international law. Therefore, after describing the three legal issues related to the P-1 Maritime Patrol Aircraft matter (including the joint fishing zone between Korea and Japan, the requirements for the exercise of the right to unit self-defense, and the international legal obligations during maritime distress), the countermeasures on the part of the Korean Government were reviewed in this article.
To study influence of carbonmonoxide (CO) poisoning on the content of amino acid neurotransmitter in brain, male rat was exposed to CO 5000 ppm for 30 minutes (60-75% HbCO). Aspartic acid and glutamic acid level in the cerebral cortex and aspartic acid level in the striatum were significantly decreased. GABA level in the cerebral cortex was significantly increased after the 30 and 60 minutes of CO intoxication. Taurine level in both the cerebral cortex and the striatum was increased although nonsignificant. Consequently, the CO-induced hypoxia brain showed lower level or excitatory neurotransmitter, aspartic acid and glutamic acid and higher level of inhibitory neurotransmetter, GABA and taurine. These results suggest that the change in content of amino acid neurotransmitter in the rat brain may be concerned with several CO poisoning symptoms.
Ce travail a pour objet la description formelle de la nominalisation d'adjectifs, c'est-a`-dire des relations syste´matiques entre constructions adjectivales et constructions nominales, dans le cadre du Lexcique-Grammaire. Ces relations re´gulie`res peuvent e^tre de´finies comme une transformation qui relie deux phrases diffe´rentes en forme, mais pratiquement synonymes, par le recours a` la notion de support. Il s'agit de deux constructions identiques du point de vue lexico-syntaxique, dont la relation est appele´e globalement "nominalisation d'adjectifs" ; ce qui se repre´sente de la manie`re suivante : No e^tre Adj W = No avoir De´t Adj-n W Les nominalisations ne sont pas conside´re´es ici comme des relatians entre une phrase et un syntagme nominal mais entre deux phrases e´quivalentes, a` savoir une phrase a` adjectif et une phrase a` substantif morphologiquement associe´. La mise en relation de ces deux constructions s'est formellement justifie´e par leur synonymie et leurs proprie´te´s syntaxiques communes telles que la relation morphologique, l'identite´ des domaines d'arguments, la me^me comple´mentation, la question en Comment, l'acceptation des adverbes de degre´.
Activated carbons (ACs) were modified via e-beam irradiation at various doses for use as an electrode material in electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs). The ACs treated with the e-beam at radiation doses of 200 kGy exhibited higher nano-crystallinity than the untreated ACs. The specific surface areas and pore volumes of the e-beam irradiated ACs were also higher than those of the untreated ACs. These results were attributed to the transformation and degradation of the nano-crystallinity of the AC surfaces due to the e-beam irradiation. The specific capacitance of the AC increased by 24% after e-beam irradiation. The enhancement of the electrochemical properties of the e-beam irradiated ACs can be attributed to an increase in their specific surface area and surface crys-tallinity.