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Background: The study on retinal blood flow has been continuously pursued and recently new methods such as targeted dye delivery, fluorescent vesicle system, laser Doppler velocimetry and acridine orange staining method has been presented. The authors developed a new method, fluorescein leukocyte angiography using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope which include external staining of leukocyte with fluorescein dye and reintroducing this fluorescent leukocyte into the blood flow. However, visualization of the leukocytes was limited since the leukocytes used were from the peripheral blood in a small animal. Methods: The authors removed leukocytes from the spleen and stained these leukocytes which were reintroduced into the blood flow to observe the retinal and choroidal blood circulation. In four pair of rats, one group was injected with the leukocytes of another rat's spleen and the other group were injected with the leukocytes of each own's individual spleen and all underwent angiography. Results: There were only few lymphocytes visualized in the group of rats which eceived allo-injection of leukocytes and in the other group the lymphocytes were numerous and also had a longer existence. Conclusions: In small animals like rats the visualization of the lymphocytes used from the spleen was better than the those from the peripheral blood and lymphocytes from one own's spleen was useful for longer periods of visualization.
Intussusception of the small bowel through an ileostomy is very rare; when it causes necrosis of the bowel, immediate surgery is required. Computed tomography (CT) features of intussusception through an ileostomy have not been reported in the literature. Herein, we report the typical CT features of intussusception through an ileostomy, followed by a brief literature review.
In order to obtain the basic data for the processing adaptability of Korean figs(Ficus carica L.), physicochemical analyses were carried out with Korean common type figs in the different ripening stages. Moisture contents decreased, but the contents of protein, fat, carbohydrate and soluble solids increased according to the ripening of fruits. K was detected as the most abundant one of all the minerals and Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu were the next in order. The mineral contents decreased slightly with ripening. Especially, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe and Zn were higher in the unripened Ⅱ stage figs. The antioxidative activity was assayed with water and methanol extracts from ripened figs by the DPPH radical scavenging ability. The antioxidative activities of Korean figs were relatively high and increased in a dose dependent manner. The methanol extract showed the higher antioxidative activity than the water one. Therefore, the methanol was the better solvent than water for the antioxidative compounds. These results suggested that Korean figs are relatively the good sources of minerals, especially the Ca and the antioxidative compounds.
The present study was designed to investigate the comprehension of 'who' and 'what' questions in 2- to 3-year-old normal children. Sixty children were divided into 3 groups depending on their ages, i.e., age groups 2;6-2;11, 3;0-3:5, and 3;6-3;11. Three types of 'who' questions and 2 types of 'what' questions were generated depending on the attached case markers, i.e., who-nominative, who-accusative, who-dative, what-nominative, and what-accusative. The children watched 36 cuts of short video recordings. After watching each cut, they were asked to answer one of the 5 types of wh-questions. For the 'who-nominative' and 'what-accusative' questions, even the late 2-year-old children performed with over 70% of accuracy, and the late 3-year-old children performed with over 95% of accuracy. For the 'who-accusative' and 'who-dative' questions, the late 2-year olds exhibited difficulty in comprehension with performance accuracy of 41% and 33%, respectively. However, the late 3-year olds could comprehend those questions correctly with over 90% of accuracy. On the other hand, in answering 'what-nominative' questions, the children did not show rapid development across the age groups, as the mean performance accuracies of the 3 groups were 39%, 49%, and 59%, respectively. The results indicated that children's understanding of a wh- question is largely affected by the case of the interrogative.
The effects of two crude bacteriocins (DF01 and K10) on lactic acid bacteria (LAB)communities and pH during kimchi fermentation were analyzed by polymerase chain reactiondenaturinggradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Crude LAB bacteriocins, prepared by ammoniumsulfate precipitation, were added at 5 AU/mL, and kimchi was incubated at 20oC for 7 days. The pH andtitratable acidity of the kimchies were determined daily, and the amplified 16S rRNA products wereanalyzed by PCR-DGGE. The common and main LAB were Weissella spp., Leuconostoc spp., andLactobacillus spp. from both control and bacteriocin-treated samples. Among them, W. koreensis, W. confusa, and Lb. sakei were the predominant microorganisms throughout the fermentation period. Some obligate and facultatively heterofermentative LAB were detected from the bacteriocin-treatedsamples. The pH of the kimchi samples treated with each bacteriocin was higher (ca. 0.8 unit) than thatof the control at day 4 and 5.
Essential oils are mixtures of volatile, lipophilic compounds originating from plants. Some essential oils have useful biological activities including antimicrobial, spasmolytic, antiplasmodial, and insect-repelling activities. In this study, we tested the antimicrobial activity of essential oil prepared from the aromatic plant, Cymbopogon citrates, against three important plant pathogenic and medical microorganisms, Pectobacterium carotovorum, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and Aspergillus niger. It effectively inhibited the growth of the bacterium, Pectobacterium carotovorum, in a dose-dependent fashion, and 0.5% of the oil inhibited the growth of bacteria completely. Similarly, the essential oil inhibited the growth of plant pathogenic fungus, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and the addition of 1% of essential oil completely inhibited the growth of fungus even after 5 days of culture. Finally, it effectively inhibited the growth of the medically and industrially important fungal species, Aspergillus spp. These results suggest that the essential oil from Cymbopogon citrates may be an environmentally safe alternative to inhibit antimicrobial agents for various uses.