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Endoscopic infection sclerotherapy(EIS) has been shown to be the most effective simple method for control of bleeding and eradication of varices. This method has been accepted widely as a standard treatment of bleeding esophageal varices. However, EIS may be associated with undesirable local and systemic complications. Endoscopic variceal ligation(EVL) was first described in 1986 by Stiegmann et al, which consists of mechanical ligation and thrombosis of varices using elastic $quot;0$quot;-ring. EVL has been shown to control active bleeding and to eradicate varices when sessions are repeated. The purpose of this study was to compare with change of esophageal variceal form, with respect to safety, efficacy and complications of EVL in the each sessions. We performed EVL in 43 patients who had recently bled from esophageal varices. Total 679 variceal ligations were performed during 174 separyte EVL sessians. Eighteen(94.7%) of those actively bleeding(19 patients) at initial treatment had bleeding controlled at initial session. During the study period two patients died after 1st and 3rd session, one who died from aggravation of concomitant hepatoma with rebleeding, the other died from early massive rebleeding after 3rd session. Rebleeding, before eradicates varices, occured in 7 patients(16.3%) two patients had bled from varices with aggravation of concomitant hepatoma, other 2 patients had bled from early varices ligation, other 3 patients had bled from re-varices formation in fundus of the stomach. Varices were eradicated or reduced to F₁ in 36 patients(87.8%) of the 41 follow up patients. Each patient received mean 15.8 ligations and 4.1 sessions during the 1st to 6th sessions. Eradication rate of varices(F_0) has increased from the 3rd to the 4th session periods. Improvement rate of varices(F₁) has increased from the 1st to the 3rd session periods. During the 5th or the 6h EVL sessions, eradication and improvement rate of esaphageal varices has been shown to decreased. During or after EVL, there were no major complications, except mild chest discomfort in 6 patients, early bleeding in 2 gatients, mild dysphagia in one patient of 43 patients. According to this study, EVL appears to control active variceal bleeding and eradicate varices with repeat treatments. It is a safe and effective treatment for esophageal varices bleeding. We recommended EVL as an alternative to EIS over the 5th sessions.
사람의 장티푸스 연구는 생쥐에 감염되는 Salmonella typhimurium를 모델로 연구되고 있으며, 생쥐에 있어서 S. typhimurium의 감염은 이자세포의 증식반응을 감소시키는 것으로 알려져 있다. S. typhimurium lipid A의 처리가 T 세포 mitogen에 의한 이자 세포의 증식에 어떤 영향을 주는 가를 in vitro와 ex vivo 조건에서 알아 보았다. Lipid A 단독 처리는 이자 세포의 증식을 보였으나, lipid A 처리 후 T 세포 mitogen인 concanavalin A (Con A)와 phytohemagglutinin (PHA)에 의한 in vitro와 ex vivo 조건에서의 이차 처리는 오히려 세포증식이 억제되었다. Lipid A를 주사한 생쥐로부터 분리한 이자 세포에서 대식세포를 제거하였을 조건에서는 T 세포 mitogen에 의한 증식 효과가 유지되었으나 대식세포를 제거하지 않았을 경우에는 T 세포 mitogen에 의한 증식 효과가 억제되었다. Lipid A를 주사한 생쥐에서 얻은 대식세포를 포함한 이자세포의 숫자를 증가하면서 Lipid A를 주사하지 않은 생쥐에서 얻은 이자세포와 혼합 배양하였을 때 Lipid A를 주사한 생쥐에서 얻은 대식세포를 포함한 이자세포의 숫자가 높을수록 Con A와 PHA에 의한 증식억제가 높게 측정되었다. 이러한 결과는 Con A와 PHA의 이자세포 증식 기능이 lipid A의 전처리에 의해 활성화된 대식세포의 직접적인 접촉 작용으로 억제된 것으로 생각된다. 본 연구의 결과를 바탕으로 억제에 관여하는 대식세포 표면분자를 밝히는 것이 사람의 장티푸스 연구에 도움이 되리라 생각된다. Infection with virulent or attenuated Salmonella typhimuriumhas known to induce reduction in proliferative responses of spleen cells. We investigated a role of lipid A from S. typhimurium, a B cell mitogen, on proliferation of spleen cells by T cell mitogens such as concanavaline A and phytohemagglutinin under in vitro and ex vivo conditions. Lipid A alone induced proliferation of spleen cells in vitroin a dose-dependent manner. However, subsequent treatment of concanavaline A or phytohemagglutin in after lipid A treatment induced proliferation suppression of murine spleen cells in vitro and ex vivo. Removal of macrophages from spleen cells, which were obtained from a lipid A-injected mouse, restored proliferation by concanavaline A and phytohemagglutinin, indicating that macrophages appeared to play a role in lipid A-induced suppression. Secreted molecules from macrophages did not accounted for the suppression because suppressive effect was not achieved when the supernatant from macrophage-containing spleen cell culture was conditioned to macrophage-depleted spleen cell culture. Co-culture of spleen cells from lipid A-treated and –untreated mice showed proliferation suppression as increasing cell numbers of lipid A-treated mouse. These data suggested that the cell-to-cell contact of macrophage with splenic lymphocyte cells is responsible for immune responses against lipid A, which is applicable to the case of human S. typhi infection.
We report a case of apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy combined with acute myocardial infarction and multiple coronary thrombosis. The patient presented with signs and symptoms of acute myocardial infarction, showing ST elevation in the lateral leads and ST depression in anterior chest leads on initial electrocardiogram. The coronary angiogram on admission, multiple thrombosis of distal left anterior descending artery, left circumflex, diagonal and obtuse marginal arteries were found. The present case shows that apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can be combined with acute myocardial infarction and multiple coronary thrombosis. We report a case of apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy combined with acute myocardial infarction and multiple coronary thrombosis. The patient presented with signs and symptoms of acute myocardial infarction, showing ST elevation in the lateral leads and ST depression in anterior chest leads on initial electrocardiogram. The coronary angiogram on admission, multiple thrombosis of distal left anterior descending artery, left circumflex, diagonal and obtuse marginal arteries were found. The present case shows that apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can be combined with acute myocardial infarction and multiple coronary thrombosis.
As the milk processing wastewater contains large amount of soluble substances and its quality and quantity changes widely, it is not easy to treat efficiently. In this work, we investigated two biological processes for milk processing wastewater treatment, the oxidation ditch process for S Milk Y plant and the B3 process for S Milk G plant. The comparison was made using the one year operation results of these two full-scale plants focusing on the removal of organic matters and nutrients(N, P). Based on the steady state data of the B3 process, hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3.2 days and sludge retention time (SRT) of 13.8 days were found to be appropriate for milk processing wastewater. Under these conditions the removal efficiencies of organic matters in terms of BOD, CODMn and SS were 99.7%, 98.4% and 99.5%, respectively. In addition, the removal of T-N and T-P amounted to 91.9% and 96.9%, respectively. Therefore, it was confirmed that organic matter and nutrients in milk processing wastewater can be effectively treated with the B3 process if proper operating conditions are maintained. When compared with the oxidation ditch process, the B3 process showed greater removal efficiencies especially for nitrogen and phosphorus. .
In this study an analytical tide model of uniform width with three sub-regions is presented. The three-subregions model takes into account step-like variations in depths in the direction of the channel as a way to examine the M2 tide of the East China Sea (ECS) as well as the Yellow Sea (YS). A modified Proudman radiation condition has been applied at the northern open head, while the sea surface elevation is specified at the southern open boundary. It is seen that, due to the presence of an abrupt change in depth, co-amplitude lines of the M2 tide are splitted to the east and west near the end of the ECS shelf region. Variations in depths, bottom friction and the open head boundary conditions all contribute to the determination of formation of amphidromes as well as overall patterns of M2 tidal distribution. It is seen that increasing water depth and bottom friction in the ECS shelf results in the westward shift of the southern amphidrome. There is however no hint at all of the well-known degenerated tidal pattern being formed. It is inferred that a lateral variation of water depth has to be somehow incorporated to represent the tidal patterns in ECS in a realistic manner. Regarding the radiation factor introduced by Fang et al. (1991), use of a value larger than one, possibly with a phase shift, appears to be a proper way of incorporating the reflected waves from the northern Yellow Sea (NYS).
Lower dimensional cases of Einstein’s connection were already investigated by many authors for n = 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7. This paper is the first part of the following series of two papers, in which we obtain a surveyable tensorial representation of 8-dimensional Einstein’s connection in terms of the unified field tensor, with main emphasis on the derivation of powerful and useful recurrence relations which hold in 8-dimensional Einstein’s unified field theory(i.e., 8-g-UFT): I. The recurrence relations in 8-g-UFT II. The Einstein’s connection in 8-g-UFT All considerations in these papers are restricted to the second class only, since the case of the first class are done in ,  and the case of the third class, the simplest case, was already studied by many authors.