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      • KCI등재

        논에서의 비점오염부하 예측을 위한 엑셀기반의 PADDIMOD2 개발

        전지홍,Jeon, Ji-Hong 한국농공학회 2011 한국농공학회논문집 Vol.53 No.4

        PADDIMOD2 was deloped to estimate nonpoint source pollution from paddy rice fields. The PADDIMOD2 was enhanced to estimate runoff and pollutant load during non-growing as well as growing season and to be easily used for public by development of Excel based system. Nutrient concentration and hydrology were based on Dirac delta function and continuous source function, and tank model for growing season and Event Mean Concentrations (EMCs) and SCS-Curve Number method for non-growing season. The PADDIMOD2 consists of three main component (input data, parameters data, and output data) by including eight Excel spread sheets. As a result of model application, total precipitation and irrigation were 1,051.7 mm and 439.2 mm, respectivley and surface runoff and water loss including infiltration and evapotranspiration were 463.0 mm and 947.9 mm, respectively. Annual nutrient loadings of T-N and T-P from study area were 6.7 kg/$km^2$/day and 0.5 kg/$km^2$/day, respectively. Development of PADDIMOD2 was focused on minimizing input data and maximizing user friendly system and is expected to be useful tool to evaluate various non-structure BMPs and estimate unit load from paddy rice fields for application at Korean TMDL.

      • KCI등재

        최적화 기법을 이용한 임하호유역 대표 CN값 추정

        전지홍,김태동,최동혁,Jeon, Ji-Hong,Kim, Tae-Dong,Choi, Dong-Hyuk 한국농공학회 2011 한국농공학회논문집 Vol.53 No.5

        Curve Numbers (CN) for the combination of land use and hydrologic soil group were regionalized at Imha Watershed using Long-term Hydrologic Impact Assessment (L-THIA) coupled with SCE-UA. The L-THIA was calibrated during 1991-2000 and validated during 2001-2007 using monthly observed direct runoff data. The Nash-Sutcliffe (NS) coefficients for calibration and validation were 0.91 and 0.93, respectively, and showed high model efficiency. Based on the criteria of model calibration, both calibration and validation represented 'very good' fit with observe data. The spatial distribution of direct surface runoff by L-THIA represented runoff from Thiessen pologen at Subi and Sukbo rain gage station much higher than other area due to the combination of poor hydrologic condition (hydrologic soil C and D group) and locality heavy rainfall. As a results of hydrologic condition and treatment for land use type based on calibrated CNs, forest is recommended to be hydrologically modelled dived into deciduous, coniferous, and mixed forest due to the hydrological difference. The CNs for forest and upland showed the poor hydrologic condition. The steep slope of forest and alpine agricultural field make high runoff rate which is the poor hydrologic condition because CN method can not consider field slope. L-THIA linded with SCE-UA could generated a regionalized CNs for land use type with minimized time and effort, and maximized model's accuracy.

      • KCI등재

        L-THIA를 이용한 낙동강수계 임하댐유역 비점오염원의 공간적 분포해석

        전지홍,다니엘차,최동혁,김태동,Jeon, Ji-Hong,Cha, Daniel K.,Choi, Donghyuk,Kim, Tae-Dong 한국농공학회 2013 한국농공학회논문집 Vol.55 No.1

        Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment (L-THIA) model which is a distributed watershed model was applied to analyze the spatial distribution of surface runoff and nonpoint source pollutant loading from Imha watershed during 2001~2010. L-THIA CN Calibration Tool linked with SCE-UA was developed to calibrate surface runoff automatically. Calibration (2001~2005) and validation (2006~2010) of monthly surface runoff were represented as 'very good' model performance showing 0.91 for calibration and 0.89 for validation as Nash-Sutcliffe (NS) values. Average annual surface runoff from Imha watershed was 218.4 mm and Banbyun subwatershed was much more than other watersheds due to poor hydrologic condition. Average annual nonpoint source pollutant loading from Imha wateshed were 2,295 ton/year for $BOD_5$, 14,752 ton/year for SS, 358 ton/year for T-N, and 79 ton/year for T-P. Amount of pollutant loading and pollutant loading rates from Banbyun watershed were much higher than other watersheds. As results of analysis of loading rate from grid size ($30m{\times}30m$), most of high 10 % of loading rate were generated from upland. Therefore, major hot spot area to manage nonpoint source pollution in Imha watershed is the combination of upland and Banbyun subwatershed. L-THIA model is easy to use and prepare input file and useful tool to manage nonpoint source pollution at screening level.

      • KCI등재

        HSPF-PEST를 이용한 불연속 실측치 자동보정

        전지홍,이새봄,Jeon, Ji-Hong,Lee, Sae-Bom 한국농공학회 2012 한국농공학회논문집 Vol.54 No.6

        Applicability of 8 day interval flow data for the calibration of hydrologic model was evaluated using Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) at Kyungan watershed. The 8 day interval flow monitored by Ministry of Environment located at upstream was calibrated and periodically validated during 2004-2008. And continuous daily flow monitored by Ministry of Construction & Transportation (MOCT) and located at the mouth was compared with daily simulated data during 2004-2007 as spatial validation. Automatic calibration tool which is Model-Independent Parameter Estimation & Uncertainty Analysis (PEST) was applied for HSPF calibration procedure. The model efficiencies for calibration and periodic validation were 0.63 and 0.88, and model performances were fair and very good, respectively, based on criteria of calibration tolerances. Continuous daily stream flow at the mouth of Kyungan watershed were good agreement with observed continuous daily stream flow with showing 0.63 NS value. The PEST program is very useful tool for HSPF hydrologic calibration using non-continuous daily stream flow as well as continuous daily stream flow. The 8 day interval flow data monitored by MOE could be used to calibrate hydrologic model if the continuous daily stream flow is unavailable.

      • KCI등재

        반응표면 분석법을 이용한 천연마섬유보강 순환굵은골재 콘크리트의 성능 평가

        전지홍,김황희,김춘수,유성열,박찬기,Jeon, Ji Hong,Kim, Hwang Hee,Kim, Chun Soo,Yoo, Sung Yeol,Park, Chan Gi 한국농공학회 2014 한국농공학회논문집 Vol.56 No.4

        In this study, evaluated ware the strength and durability of the vegetated water purification channel concrete to which recycled aggregates, hawang-toh and jute were applied. Box-Behnken method of response surface analysis in statistics was applied to the experimental design. Experimental variables are as follows, recycled coarse aggregates, hawang-toh, blast-furnace slag and jute fiber. In the experiment, conducted were the tests of compressive strength, chloride ion penetration, abrasion resistance and impact resistance the replacement rate effects of the recycled aggregates, blast-furnace slag and hwang-toh on the performance of vegetated water purification channel concrete were analyzed by using the response surface analysis method on the basis of the experimental results. In addition, an optimum mixing ratio of vegetated water purification channel concrete was determined by using the experimental results. The optimum mixing ratio was determined to be in 10.0% recycled coarse aggregates, 60.0% blast-furnace slag, 10.1% hwang-toh and 0.16% jute fiber. The compressive strength, chloride ion penetration, abrasion rate, and impact number of fracture test results of the optimum mixing ratio were 24.1 MPa, 999 coulombs, 10.30 g/mm3, and 20 number, respectively.

      • KCI등재후보

        산림유역 비점오염 유달특성 분석

        전지홍,최동혁,김태동 한국도시환경학회 2010 한국도시환경학회지 Vol.10 No.3

        Calculating delivery ratio is very important procedure to apply Korean Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL). Characteristics of delivered pollutant load were analyzed by plotting flow duration curve, load duration curve, and delivery ratio duration curve for BOD, T-N and T-P using HSPF simulation results. As a result of HSPF calibration, HSPF could simulate well both pollutant load and stream flow with high model efficiency. At high flow condition, the delivery ratio of BOD and T-P was higher than that of T-N. However flow condition from medium to low, the delivery ratio of T-N was higher than those of BOD and T-P because nitrogen can be easily delivered from site of source to stream as soluble form such as NOx whereas, phosphorus can easily adhere to soil and is discharged with soil when rainy season. Overall,delivery ratios were very low especially at condition from medium to low and we concluded that that's traditional trend of forested watershed. As a result of plotting load duration curve based on target water quality and monitoring data, all of T-P concentration at high flow condition (< 10% days exceeded) were not meet target water quality so, primary measure to improve water quality, if needed, at Giran watershed is to reduce nonpoint source pollution of T-P at high flow condition. 수질오염총량제에 있어서 유달율 계산은 매우 중요한 과정이다. 본 연구에서는 산림지역인 길안유역에 있어서 강우시유출량 및 BOD, T-N, T-P에 대하여 HSPF모델을 보정한 후 유출유황곡선과 오염유황곡선, 유달율유황곡선을 작성 하고유출특성을 고찰하였다. 그 결과, HSPF는 유출량 및 영양물질 부하량을 잘 모의하였으며, 저유량에서는 T-N의 유달율은BOD, T-P에 비해 상대적으로 높았으나 고유량에서는 BOD, T-P의 유달율은 T-N의 유달율 보다 높게 나타났다. 이는 대부분의 질소는 자연상태에서 용존성의 NOX로 존재하기 평상시 유출이 상대적으로 많이 일어나기 때문이며, 인이나 BOD 의 경우에는 강우시 입자상의 유출이 많이 일어나기 때문인 것으로 판단된다. 부하유황곡선 분석결과, 길안유역의 고유량일때의 TP가 수질오염총량제 목표수질을 초과하는 것으로 나타나 대상유역의 우선관리는 강우시 T-P인 것으로 나타났다.

      • KCI등재후보

        원단위를 이용한 낙동강유역 비점오염 배출특성 분석

        전지홍,장태권,황하선,최동혁,김태동 한국도시환경학회 2010 한국도시환경학회지 Vol.10 No.3

        Spatial change of nonpoint source pollutant loadings along Nakdong River Basin was analyzed using discharged pollutant loading calculated by unit load. Nonpoint source pollutions were more loaded than point source pollution at Nakdong River Basin and increased steadily from upper to down river basin. Major source of nonpoint source pollution from Nakdong River Basin was land cover and second major source of that was livestock. Major source of land cover as nonpoint source pollution was urban for BOD item, forested and agricultural area for T-N and urban, agricultural,forested area with similar ratio for T-P item. Overall nonpoint source pollutions from upland and forest were decreased and thoes from paddy rice filed and urban area were increased as river goes from upstream to downstream. The pollutant loading rates from subwatershed located at downstream were higher than other subwatershed and major source of nonpoint source pollution were land cover and livestock. 본 연구에서는 낙동강 유역을 대상으로 원단위에 의해 계산된 배출부하량을 이용하여 비점오염원의 공간적인 분포를분석하였다. 낙동강유역에서의 비점오염부하량은 점오염부하량에 비해 높은 것으로 나타났으며, 하류로 갈수록 비점오염부하량이 차지하는 비율이 높은 것으로 나타났다. 낙동강 유역의 주요한 비점오염원은 토지계인 것으로 나타났으며 다음이 축산계인 것으로 나타났다. 토지계에서의 주요한 비점오염원은 BOD는 대지, T-N은 산림과 농경지인 것으로 나타났으며, T-P는 대지, 산림, 농경지가 비슷한 비율을 나타내었다. 전반적으로 논을 제외한 농경지와 산림은 하류로 갈수록감소하는 것으로 나타났으며, 논과 대지는 하류로 갈수록 증가하는 경향을 나타내었다.

      • KCI등재

        HSPF를 이용한 임하호 유역 유사량 모의

        전지홍,Jeon, Ji-Hong 한국농공학회 2010 한국농공학회논문집 Vol.52 No.6

        Sediment yields from Imha watershed were simulated during 1993-2008 using Hydrologic Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF). Using observed daily stream flow for 2004-2008 and hourly suspended solid concentration for three events during 2006, HSPF was calibrated and validated at the sites of Imha and Youngyang for stream flow and Dongchun and Jangpachun for sediment yield. The calibration and validation results represented high model efficiency for simulating daily stream flow and hourly suspended solid. The determination coefficients of calibration and validation were 0.90 and 0.81 for daily stream flow, and 0.91 and 0.86 for monthly stream flow, respectively. Based on model tolerances for calibration and validation of stream flow, HSPF performance for simulating stream flow represented 'very good'. The determination coefficients of calibration and validation were 0.94-0.96 and 0.95 for hourly sediment yields, respectively. The average yearly sediment yield during 1993-2008 was 122,290 ton/year and most of sediment yield (77 % of total yield) were generated from June to August. The calibrated HSPF simulated well the movement of water and eroded soil within Imha watershed.

      • KCI등재

        보청A유역 유량 및 영양물질 자동보정을 위한 HSPF-PEST 연계적용

        전지홍,최동혁,임경재,김태동,Jeon, Ji-Hong,Choi, Dong-Hyuk,Lim, Kyung-Jae,Kim, Tae-Dong 한국농공학회 2010 한국농공학회논문집 Vol.52 No.5

        Hydrologic Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) coupled with PEST which is optimization program was calibrated and validated at Bochung watershed by using monitoring data of water quantities and nutrient loading. Although the calibrated data were limited, model parameters of each land use type were optimized and coefficient of determinations were ranged from 0.94 to 0.99 for runoff, from 0.89 to 1.00 for TN loading, and from 0.92 to 1.00 for TP loading. The optimized hydrological parameters indicated that the forested land could retain rainfall within soil layer with high soil layer depth and infiltration rate compared with other land use type. Hydrological characteristics of paddy rice field are low infiltration rate and coefficient of roughness. The calibrated parameters related to nutrient loading indicated generation of nutrient pollution from agricultural area including upland and paddy rice field higher than other land use type resulting from fertilizer application. Overall PEST program is useful tool to calibrate HSPF automatically without consuming time and efforts.

      • KCI등재

        소유역 유달율 추정공식 개발 -보청A유역을 중심으로-

        전지홍,최동혁,임경재,김태동,Jeon, Ji-Hong,Choi, Dong-Hyuk,Lim, Kyung-Jae,Kim, Tae-Dong 한국농공학회 2010 한국농공학회논문집 Vol.52 No.5

        The characteristics of delivered nutrient loads were analyzed and the regression equations to estimate delivery ratios of nutrients (TN and TP) were developed using HSPF simulation results at six subwatersheds within the Bochung A unit watershed during 1998-2007. TN delivery ratio was higher than TP delivery ratio because significant amounts of TP was considered to be attached at soil as ${PO_4}^-$ during delivery process from discharged point of nutrient source to main stream. As a results of correlation analysis, factors related to geomorphic characteristics had not statistical correlation with TN and TP delivery ratios. TN loading rate from living and specific stream flow had statistical negative and positive correlation, respectively, with TN delivery ratio. TP loading rates from all sources and from land cover and specific stream flow had statistical negative, negative and positive correlation, respectively. The specific stream flow represents the most strong correlation with nutrient delivery ratios. The regression equations to estimate delivery ratios for TN and TP were developed by including statistical correlated factors and showed high efficiency of 0.98 and 0.95 of coefficient of determination for TN and TP, respectively.

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