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This theme tries to deal with a part of the Honorific endings "사.ㅂ[s?p]etc wich appeared in Written Korean Language, in 15th century. I dicide them into five parts and point out the most important subjects. Ⅰ. The definition of 사.ㅂ[s?p]etc. ① Scholars have two defferent way of thinking abaut honorific ending appeared in predicative words. (a) Respective expression ……to show one's respect. (b) Humble expression ……to show one's humble mind ② But respectiveness and humbleness are of almost same meaning. ③ Honorific ending is ascribed to unuversality which contains both conception. Ⅱ. The subject and object and ㆁㅣ[ŋi] of the honorific expression. ① Three conditions in making honorific expression. (a) Speaker (b) Hearer (c) Contents of speach ② In honorific expression the subject is a speaker, and the object is a heater. ③ Honorific ending ㆁㅣ[ŋi] is a direct honorific expression, in which the subject is directed to the object. Ⅲ. The nature of 사.ㅂ[s?p]etc. and 시[si] ① 사.ㅂetc. is not direct honorific expression to a Subject as ㆁㅣ[ŋi], not a expression from outpouring of mide of the subject. ② 사.ㅂetc. and 시 are consisted in the speaker's recognition -understanding the relation with the superior and inferior in both subject and object in speaking. ③ 사.ㅂ[s?p]etc. has no relation with the hearer (object) -not for the hearer and not restricted by the hearer. ④ 사.ㅂetc. require three conditions for its existence. (a) Relation with superiority and inferiority in speaking. (b) Recognition of the inferior. (c) Recognition of the speaker. ⑤ 시[si] shows the nobility of the subject in speaking. ⑥ 시 has no relation with the hearer, but appeares in the relation of the superiority and inferiority. ⑦ 시 is not limited to the action, but used as a determinative and an adjective. Ⅳ. A historical study of 사.ㅂ[s?p]etc. ① 사.ㅂetc. is a derivative of 사.ㅂ[s?p]etc. ② ㆍ[?] of ㅸㅏ.[β?] does not include honorific meaning. ③ 사.ㅸㅏ.[s?β?]etc. is a conjugarion of 사.ㅂ[s?p]etc. and does not belong to post generation but belong to the same generation in point of historical view. ④ ㆁㅂ[?p] is a posterity of ㅿㅏ.ㅂ[z?p] and does not exist in the same period. Ⅴ. Sementic side of view (a study ofㆍ[?]). ① ㆍ[?] is merely a common medium vowel (mεkε-mo?m). ② 사.ㅂetc. is sometimes used without the medium vowel ③ It is used in conbination with conjunctive form. ④ It has the meaning of respect since the King, Sejo (世祖王). (The signs in brackets are international phonetic signs)
OBJECTIVES:Through a survey on perception of lung cancer screening and accompanying medical radiation exposure in Korea, the present study was to investigate its current situations and evaluate various perception of physicians regarding it in order to propose measures for improvements. METHODS: Medical specialists in national cancer screening institutions selected through stratified random sampling were subjected to face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire. We investigated physicians’ perception on effectiveness of lung cancer screening depending on screening modality, selection criteria for subjects of screening, types of equipment used to screen, and perception for seriousness of adverse effects following the test. In addition, odds ratios to underestimate risk of radiation exposure from screening were calculated through logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Each response that chest X-ray is effective for lung cancer screening and that smoking history is not considered prior to screening recommendation accounted for more than 60% of respondents, suggesting the chance of unnecessary screening tests. Regarding adverse effects of lung cancer screening, about 85% of respondents replied that false positive, radiation exposure, and overdiagnosis could be ignored. About 70% of respondents underestimated radiation dose from lung cancer screening, and a low proportion of physicians informed patients of radiation exposure risk. CONCLUSIONS: It was found that most physicians underestimated harms of lung cancer screening including radiation exposure and were lack of awareness regarding lung cancer screening. It should be noted that physicians need to have proper perceptions about screening recommendation and accompanying possible harms, for successful implementation of the screening program.
Background: False-positive fecal immunochemical test (FIT) results in the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) for colorectal cancer may lead to unnecessary procedures, such as colonoscopies, increasing the medical costs. We estimated reductions in the cost of National Health Insurance according to the accreditation status of screening facilities participating in the NCSP for colorectal cancer. Methods: We used data collected between 2007 and 2010 from NCSP and the Korea Central Cancer Registry to identify patients with colorectal cancer. We also ascertained the history of the accreditation of each facility by the Korean Laboratory Accreditation Program (KLAP). Budget impact was defined as a reduction in medical costs achieved when the false-positive rate of the non-accredited facilities decreased relative to that of the accredited facilities. Results: A total of 3,285 screening facilities participated in the NCSP. Of these, 196 were accredited by the KLAP. The false-positive rate of the accredited facilities was 2.47%, and that of the non-accredited facilities was 6.83%. Medical costs were estimated to be reduced by approximately 19 million US dollars (USD), and the cost of detecting one case of colorectal cancer was estimated to decrease from 9,212 USD to 7,332 USD if the falsepositive rate of non-accredited facilities were decreased to that of the accredited facilities. Clinics were estimated to have the largest associated cost reduction. Conclusions: Quality assurance in clinical laboratories could lower false-positive rates and prevent the use of unnecessary procedures, ensuring patient safety and increasing the cost-effectiveness of FIT screening in the NCSP for colorectal cancer.
전재관,곽진,박수경,최윤희,김연주,신애선,장성훈,신해림,유근영,Jun, Jae-Kwan,Gwack, Jin,Park, Sue-Kyung,Choi, Yun-Hee,Kim, Yeon-Ju,Shin, Ae-Sun,Chang, Soung-Hoon,Shin, Hai-Rim,Yoo, Keun-Young 대한예방의학회 2006 Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health Vol.39 No.6
Objectives : Diabetes has been reported as a risk factor for several cancers. However, the association between diabetes and gastric cancer has been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the fasting serum glucose level and gastric cancer risk in Korea. Methods : Among the members of the Korean Multi-Center Cancer Cohort (KMCC) from 1993 to 2004, a total of 100 incident gastric cancer cases were ascertained until December 31, 2002 and 400 controls were matched according to age, sex, and year and area of enrollment. Of the eligible subjects, those without fasting serum glucose level information were excluded, with a total of 64 cases and 236 controls finally selected. On enrollment, all subjects completed a baseline demographic and lifestyle characteristics questionnaire, and had their fasting serum glucose level measured. The Helicobacter pylori infection status was determined by an immunoblot assay using long-term stored serum. The odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using conditional and unconditional logistic regression models adjusted for the H. pylori infection status, smoking, drinking, education, follow-up period and matching variables. Results : The ORs for risk of gastric cancer according to the serum glucose level were 1.33 [95% CI=0.50-3.53] and 1.66 [95% CI=0.55-5.02] for the categories of 100-125 and 126 mg/dL or greater, respectively, compared to the category of less than 100 mg/dL. No increased risk of gastric cancer according to the serum glucose level was found (p-trend=0.337). Conclusions : This study provides no evidence for an association of the serum glucose level with gastric cancer.