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'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
Objectives : The aim of this study was to examine the change in attitudes and satisfaction level of North Korean defectors in South Korea over a 3 year period (2001-2004). Methods : In our first study in 2001, a total of 200 detectors were interviewed. In the follow up study after 3 years, 151 defectors were re-interviewed by an in-person interview. Results : The level of satisfaction to the governmental support policy to defectors decreased significantly. However, the general level of satisfaction increased slightly (from 3.52 to 3.56 ; 5-score scale). This shows that North Korean defectors are stably adapting to South Korean society. The level of satisfaction significantly correlated with the defectors' confusion of the different value systems, the defectors' understanding of the South Korean people, satisfaction with their physical and mental health, and the Prejudice of South Korean people to defectors. In terms of the attitudes, the type of schooling, the military service and the communist party membership in North Korea were not related to the change in attitude. However, there was a significant correlation with gender and age. Women showed a greater change in attitude compared to men. Older people had difficulty in understanding the South Korean people, but they showed little psychological affiliation to North Korea. Moreover, they showed a high level of satisfaction with the economic situation in South Korea and had an optimistic viewpoint for their future than younger people. Even though many defectors attended churches, religion was not associated with the level of satisfaction or their change in attitude. Conclusion : The factors that influence the level of satisfaction and attitudes of North Korean defectors have changed over 3 years. Therefore, the government, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) associated with defectors and the churches need to be more sensitive to these changes and make plans to support the adaptation of defectors to South Korean society.
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Objectives : North Korean people's thought and opinions on their contry, society, and economy were studied through North Korean defectors. Methods : At Hanawon, 163 defectors were surveyed with 2 questionnaires in May 2002. Results : North Koreans believe that socialism it was a right choice for North Korea. Because of the gap between the ideal and economic reality, however admitted sense of frustration. They think that the communist value system and the communal consciousness have been shrinking gradually, and their attitude to South Korea was one of ambivalence. Peoples views are different according to age and institutional education they received. Conclusion : For the day of unification, we suggest the followings. First, South and North Korea should put in more effort for building a common nationalistic consciousness. Second, reasonable criticism against communism and the advantages of alternative systems which are expected to be accepted by North Koreans through education after unification, need to be prepared. Third, the development of psychological conflicts and the frustration of North Korean people after unification are anticipated and their solutions must be saught after. Fourth, continuos studies for the understanding of North Korean people's psychological characteristics and it's change is needed.
탈북자들을 통하여 본 북한 주민 의식 조사 I - 국가, 사회, 경제 의식을 중심으로 목적 : 본 연구는 남한에 들어와 있는 탈북자들을 대상으로 북한 주민들이 그들의 국가, 사회, 경제에 대하여 어떠한 생각과 의식을 가지고 있는지를 알아보기 위하여 실시되었다. 방법 : 하나원에서 163명의 탈북자를 대상으로 2개의 설문으로 2002년 5월 조사를 시행하였다. 결과 : 북한 주민들은 북한의 사회주의 선택이 옳았다는 의식을 가지고 있으면서도 자신들의 이상과 현실 사이의 차이에 좌절하고 있음이 나타났다. 그러면서 공산주의적 가치관과 공동체 의식이 점차 붕괴되고 있으며, 남한에 대하여는 양가감정적 태도가 있는 것으로 나타났다. 또한 연령, 학력 등의 차이에 의한 의식의 많은 차이가 있는 것으로 나타났다.
This study was conducted to investigate the religious experiences of North Korean defectors in South Korea and the preparation of the Church for the Korean unification. Twenty-three North Korean defectors were interviewed qualitatively, and the data from the interview were analyzed using the theme analysis method. Results showed that the reasons why North Korean defectors held a religion in South Korea were as follows: (1) to receive help for overcoming life difficulties (2) to maintain relationship with the people who helped the defectors when they entered South Korea (3) to broaden personal connections (4) to receive financial support and (5) to be guided by moral aspects of the religion. On the other hand, North Korean defectors reported the reasons why they had difficulties in keeping religion and why they abandon ed it as follows: (1) unfamiliarity with religion (2) religion posing aspects that were similar to Ju-Che ideology, which were educated in North Korea (3) negative experiences in the church and (4) their absolute judgemental attitude. Theses results suggests ways that South Korean churches could prepare for Korean unification as follows: (1) Churches should try to understand the psychological and cognitive characteristics of North Korean people and North Korean defectors (2) need to develop religion education programs for North Korean defectors (3) need to confirm the basic doctrine of Christianity in preparing unification and lastly (4) need to be more active, balanced, and initiative i n the process of unification.
Objectives: North Korean defectors' level of understanding of South Korean society and their satisfaction to their life in South Korea symbolize their adaptation to new society. The current report is an analysis of three serial panel studies of 200 North Korean defectors who entered South Korea in 2000. Methods: From February 2009 to March 2009, 121 defectors were interviewed face-to-face. Results: The results showed that the satisfaction level was relatively well maintained and their understanding of South Korean culture and language increased. However, their attitudes toward fellow North Korean defectors had worsened. Their satisfaction level with the government support for medical care was very low. Gender, age, level of education in North Korea, Communist Party membership, completion of military service, and current employment status had a significant influence on their interpretation and understanding of South Korea. Conclusion: It has been suggested that creating North Korean defector selfhelp groups, strengthening the medical support system, developing programs tailored to those with different backgrounds, gender, age, and level of education as well as increasing South Koreans' awareness of North Koreans through campaign will be necessary for peaceful unification of the Korean Peninsula. 본 연구는 2000년에 남한에 입국 한 북한이주민 106명을 대상으로 2001년, 2004년, 2007년, 총 3회에 걸쳐 조사한 그 들의 종교 생활에 대한 분석 결과이다. 연 구 결과, 북한이주민 중 종교를 가진 사람 들의 대부분은 기독교를 자신들의 종교로 가지고 있었으며, 2000년 입국 당시보다 2001년, 2004년에는 기독교 신자가 다소 증가하다가 2007년에는 감소하는 경향을 보였다. 종교 생활을 유지 이유는 2004년에 는 ‘마음의 안정을 얻기 위해서'와 ‘도덕적 삶을 사는데 도움이 돼서'가 가장 많았다. 그 러나 2007년에는 ‘마음의 안정을 얻기 위해 서'와 ‘믿음을 얻기 위해서'가 많아졌다. 종 교 생활을 하다가 중단하는 이유는 2004년 에 비해 2007년에는 ‘직장생활이 바빠서'가 크게 증가하였다. 북한이주민의 인구학적 특징에 의한 종교생활의 변화를 살펴보면, 성별과 연령, 북한 학력에 따른 종교 생활 차이는 없었다. 한편, 당원이 아닐수록, 무 직일 경우, 남한 교육 경험이 있을수록 종 교생활을 유지하는 경향이 더 높은 것으로 나타났다. 마지막으로는 남한 내 종교 기관 들이 북한이주민들을 더 잘 이해하고 효과 적으로 지원할 수 있도록 하는 제언을 제시 하였다.
North Korean defectors try to survive in South Korean society with the behavioral patterns and attitudes, which were indoctrinated in North Korea. Therefore an analysis of the behavioral patterns and attitudes of the defectors in South Korean society will provide understanding of the general characteristics of ordinary North Korean people. The author has written several papers about North Korean defectors in South Korean society and based on this research can make the following observations regarding several characteristics of the defectors' behavioral patterns and attitudes. First, some North Korean defectors think that openly expressed public value and justification is the most important aspect of their actions. Because, in communist North Korea, to justify oneself ideologically is regarded as the most important thing to manage their country. Second, as some defectors try to avoid exposing their true heart publicly, they usually do not believe the words of others. Because of the strong surveillance system in North Korea, hiding ones true heart is an important survival tool. Third, some defectors show a rigid way of thinking and tend to divide everything as either right or wrong. In North Korea, for political reasons, people are compelled to express their political ideas and stances on every issue in their society and usually there is very little room for compromise or individual original thought. That is why North Korean people have a rigid way of thinking. Fourth, some defectors tend to think that the will and power of high-ranking officials is superior to the law. Hence, when defectors have problems, some of them ignore the law or regulations of South Korea and try to solve their situation through direct contact with high-ranking officials. Fifth, some defectors exhibit passivity and dependency in solving their problems in South Korean society, as this is the most typical characteristic of the communist country's people. Sixth, some defectors are very sensitive to the fact that they are treated equally regardless of their ability or productivity; another main characteristic of the communist country. Seventh, some defectors show sensitivity to power. In South Korea, they are more distinctly obedient to police officers or intelligence section officials while ignoring general public officers, which is a general practice in North Korea. These characteristics and differences of defectors may lead to misunderstandings between South Koreans and defectors. In order to solve these problems, the author make the following suggestions: first, it is important to recognize these differences exactly and comprehensibly, and acknowledge what facts are needed; second, it is valuable to recognize that these differences between South and North Korean people can be a resource for the future development of a unified Korea.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the human relationship between North Korean defectors and South Korean policemen who are in charge of defectors to help their adaptation to South Korean society.172 policemen answered to survey questionnaire.The result showed that some demographic and social factors of defectors and policemen affect their human relationship.Relationship was best when defectors were in their teens, but worst in their thirties and forties.Relationship was worse when defectors have little regular schooling.Defectors who entered to South Korea directly from North Korea in short period had a better relationship in comparison with those who escaped to China or other third countries and stayed there for a long time to get a chance to enter to South Korea.As the policemen are younger, the relationship were better.But when some problem occurred in their relationship, younger policemen were less successful in solving the problem.There were many kind of efforts of policemen to improve the human relationship and it showed that the education-oriented effort is more effective and successful than direct problem-solving effort.The result also showed that the problems of human relationship changed as time passes.It was suggested that the role of policemen in charge of defectors should be more well-defined, and NGO(Non Government Organization) need to have more continuos and specified program to help defectors' adaptation.And finally, the need to lasting researches about defectors' adaptations was emphasized.