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A new directed product graph(DPG) is proposed from the product graph for electrical networks. By introducing the direction of an dege and the concept of a loop to product graph, it is more easy and rapid to obtain topologically the denominator of Mason's formula without relation of the sign rule and without arising terms cancelled. Also the constraints of tree selection at a given network-graph can be removed. 새로운 방향성 적선도(directed product graph; DPG)를 제안하고 적선도에 가지의 방향성과 그 환로의 개념을 도입하므로 상위수학적으로 능동과 또한 결합성 소자까지 포함하는 회로에 대한 Mason공식의 분모(△)항을 그 부호와 소거항에 무관하게 보다 쉽게 구하게 하였다. 또한 이때 회로망 선도에서 나무(tree)를 선택하는데 따르는 제약조건을 제거하였다.
The productivities of Chlorella ovalis and Dunaliella parva were influenced by the rates of medium compositions obtained from the fermented animal wastewater (BM: bacteria mineral water) including a natural substitute chelator for EDTA (etylenediaminetetraacetic acid). The most favorable medium was -E+50 adding 50% BM in f/2 medium instead of EDTA, a chemical chelator, which increased more 19-fold of cell density in C. ovalis and 7-fold in D. parva than cells cultured on f/2 medium as well as the enhancements of chlorophyll a (f/2-E: 0.26 g L?1, -E+50: 1.5 g L?1 in C. ovalis; f/2-E: 2.7 g L?1, -E+50: 15 g L?1 in D. parva) and the increase of maximal PSII quantum yields. These results were verified that the BM could play an important part as a natural chelator substituted for EDTA. In the fields of biotechnology, food organisms in fishery and eco-industries of CO2 sequestration in air and nutrient removal in water, the natural chelator of BM could be applied to enhance the biomass of the other microalgae.
We have isolated a carbohydrase(dextranase and amylase; DXAMase) hyper-producing constitutive mutant from Lipomyces starkeyi JLC26 using ultrasoft X-ray irradiation obtained from Pohang accelerator laboratory(PAL). After partial purification of dextranase and amylase by membrane filtration, PEG, and DEAE-Sepharose column chromatography, the specific activities of amylase and dextranase were 3193 and 2822 unit/mg, respectively. The pH effects for activity and stability of both enzymes were similar to each other: Optimum pH and temperature for activity were at 5.5 and 50℃ and optimum ranges for stability were at pH 2.5-6.0 and 4-37℃, respectively. When the enzyme and maltotriose were reacted, glucose, maltose, isomaltose, maltotriose, panose and α (1→6) glucosylmaltotriose were produced by disproportionation reaction. When the enzyme and nigerose were reacted, glucose, nigerose, new product were produced.
Recently, there is an increasing demand for ultra‐low‐latency (ULL) services such as factory automation, autonomous driving, and telesurgery that must meet an end‐to‐end latency of less than 10 ms. Fifth‐generation (5G) New Radio guarantees 0.5 ms one‐way latency, so the feasibility of ULL services is higher than in previous mobile communications. However, this feasibility ensures performance at the radio access network level and requires an innovative 5G network architecture for end‐to‐end ULL across the entire 5G system. Hence, we survey in detailed two the 3rd Generation Partnership Party (3GPP) standardization activities to ensure low latency at network level. 3GPP standardizes mobile edge computing (MEC), a low‐latency solution at the edge network, in Release 15/16 and is standardizing time‐sensitive communication in Release 16/17 for interworking 5G systems and IEEE 802.1 time‐sensitive networking (TSN), a next‐generation industry technology for ensuring low/deterministic latency. We developed a 5G system based on 3GPP Release 15 to support MEC with a potential sub‐10 ms end‐to‐end latency in the edge network. In the near future, to provide ULL services in the external network of a 5G system, we suggest a 5G‐IEEE TSN interworking system based on 3GPP Release 16/17 that meets an end‐to‐end latency of 2 ms.