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Objective: Studies have shown that patients with acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) and with initial eosinophilia have a milder disease than those with an initial normal peripheral eosinophil count (PEC). We investigated the effect of a rapid corticosteroid tapering strategy in AEP patients with initial eosinophilia. Methods: We performed a prospective cohort study in AEP patients with initial eosinophilia (n=14) who stopped corticosteroid treatment after achieving clinical stabilization compared with AEP patients with an initial normal PEC (n=45) who received 2-week treatment with corticosteroid. Results: In total, 59 AEP patients were identified. The median duration of corticosteroid treatment was 4 days (interquartile ranges [IQR], 3-4) in patients with initial eosinophilia and 14 (IQR, 14-14) days in patients with initial normal PEC. No treatment failure occurred in the group with initial eosinophilia; one treatment failure case occurred in the group with an initially normal PEC. The median time to overall clinical stabilization was 3 days, and time to complete resolution of all symptoms and clinical instabilities from diagnosis was 4 days in AEP patients with initial eosinophilia. Both were significantly shorter than those) in the initially normal PEC group, which were 5 and 7 days respectively (both P<0.001). Adverse effects were lower in AEP patients with initial eosinophilia. Conclusions: Rapid corticosteroid tapering may be an acceptable treatment strategy for managing AEP patients with initial eosinophilia.
Manufacturing Execution System(MES) is in charge of manufacturing execution in the shop floor based on the inputs given by high level information such as ERP, etc. The typical MES implemented is not tightly interconnected with shop floor control system including real (or near real) time monitoring and control devices such as PLC. The lack of real-time interfaces is one of the major obstacles to achieve accurate and optimization of the total performance index of the shop floor system. Smart factory system in the paradigm of Industry 4.0 tries to solve the problems via CPS (Cyber Physical System) technology and FILS (Factory In-the-Loop System). In this paper, we conducted Systems Engineering Approach to design an advanced MES (namely Smart MES) that can accommodate CPS and FILS concept. Specifically, we tailored Systems Engineering Process (SEP) based on an International Standard formalized as ISO/IEC 15288 to develop Stakeholders' Requirements (StR), System Requirements (SyR). The deliverables of each process are modeled and represented by the SysML, UML customized to Systems Engineering. The results of the research can provide a conceptual framework for future MES that can play a crucial role in the Smart Factory.
Purpose: We evaluated the clinical characteristics and courses of patients with congenitalcystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM) complicated by pneumonia. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 19 adult patientswith surgically confirmed CCAM between March 2005 and July 2013. Results:Eighteen of nineteen patients presented with acute pneumonia symptoms and signs, and inflammatory markers were elevated. On chest computed tomography, all 18 patients had parenchymal infiltration around cystic lesions, 17 (94%) had an air-fluid level, and 2 (11%) had pleural effusion. After antibiotics treatment for a median of 22 days prior to surgery, all acute pneumonia symptoms and signs disappearedin 17 (94%) patients at a median of 10 days. Improvements and normalizationof inflammatory marker levels, occurred in 17 (94%) and 9 (50%) patients at medians of 8 and 17 days, respectively. Radiological improvement was evident in 11 (61%) patients, at a median of 18 days, of these patients, partial radiological improvementoccurred in 10 (56%) and complete radiological resolution in only 1 (6%). One patient (6%) did not improve in terms of clinical, laboratory, or radiologicalfindings despite antibiotic treatment for 13 days. Consequently, after 17 (94%) elective and 1 (6%) emergency surgeries, all patients improved without developmentof complications. Conclusion: We described the clinical characteristics and courses of patients with CCAM complicated by pneumonia, and showed that surgerymay be performed safely after clinicolaboratory improvement is attained upon antibiotic treatment, even in the absence of complete radiological resolution.
We evaluated whether sonographic findings can provide additional diagnostic yield inendobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA), and canmore accurately predict nodal metastasis than chest computed tomography (CT) or positronemission tomography (PET)/CT scans. EBUS-TBNA was performed in 146 prospectivelyrecruited patients with suspected thoracic lymph node involvement on chest CT and PET/CTfrom June 2012 to January 2013. Diagnostic yields of EBUS finding categories as aprediction model for metastasis were evaluated and compared with findings of chest CT,PET/CT, and EBUS-TBNA. In total, 172 lymph nodes were included in the analysis: of them,120 were malignant and 52 were benign. The following four EBUS findings were predictiveof metastasis: nodal size ≥ 10 mm, round shape, heterogeneous echogenicity, andabsence of central hilar structure. A single EBUS finding did not have sufficient diagnosticyield; however, when the lymph node had any one of the predictive factors on EBUS, thediagnostic yields for metastasis were higher than for chest CT and PET/CT, with a sensitivityof 99.1% and negative predictive value of 83.3%. When any one of predictive factors isobserved on EBUS, subsequent TBNA should be considered, which may provide a higherdiagnostic yield than chest CT or PET/CT.
Citation analyses aid in assessing quality, trends, and future directions of research fields. We aimed to identify the most influen-tial articles on infections caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in the last 20 years. We performed a cited reference search of the database Web of Science from 1995 to 2015. The 100 most-cited articles on NTM infections were analyzed. The top 100 articles were cited from 114 to 1,471 times and were published from 1995 to 2013. Sixty-five were laboratory-based, basic science articles, with the major topics being pathophysiology (n = 20) and molecular methods for NTM identification (n = 15). Among the 35 non-laboratory studies, major topics were clinical management (n = 15) and epidemiology (n = 14). The top article was a clinical treatise on the management of NTM disease published in 2007. Although there was a correlation between article rank and journal impact factor (P = 0.043, rho = -0.202), the five articles from the journals with highest impact factors did not rank within the top 10 articles. In conclusion, a large proportion of influential articles on NTM infection are basic scientific studies, and the most influential articles are not always published in high-impact journals.
The usage of online survey in marketing research is expanding with the increase of internet use among domestic and global consumers. Still, the difference in results of online consumer survey compared to the traditional face-to-face (FTF) survey has not been fully investigated in domestic market. The difference may occur due to diverse reasons, like the exclusion of internet nonusers, sampling process, and the bias from selective participation. The purpose of this study is to find out any difference between results of online and offline survey for a segment of 20 to 40 years old, whose internet usage rate is very high. Especially, the difference in the area of diverse demographic characteristics, media usage, product buying pattern will be studied. For this, two surveys with the identical questionnaire are performed in the Seoul and other major cities. The first is an online survey applied to a consumer panel set up by an online research firm based on the population of domestic internet users. The second is a face-to-face survey applied to general consumers. For both surveys, quota sampling method is used with the sampling criteria of area, sex, and age. The sample size is 1,000 respondents respectively. The results from online survey is found to be a little different from those of offline survey. Firstly,in demographic characteristics, participants of online survey are found to have relatively high income and high education. In occupation, the ratio of white color is shown to be higher compared to face-to-face survey. For the offline survey, the portion of white color is relatively lower and that of homemakers, salespersons, and self-employed persons is found to be higher as they are easier to approach in the street than the white color. Secondly, online participants are found to spend more time than general consumers in diverse media like the internet, TV, newspapers, and magazines. The abundant information gathered from the diverse media has a direct impact on the lifestyle and product buying pattern of online survey participants. Overall, online survey participants have more interest in fashion and enjoy good food. In product buying, they show a tendency of early adopters for many products in growing markets. 국내 소비자들의 인터넷 사용 증가에 따라 마케팅 분야에서 온라인조사의 비중이 점차 확대되고있다. 그럼에도 불구하고 인터넷 비이용자의 처리나 표본추출과정에서 조사 참여자들과 비참여자들의 차이등에 의해 야기되는 온라인조사 결과의 특성에 대한 연구는 충분히 이루어지지 않은 상태이다. 이에 본 연구에서는 마케팅조사의 주 대상이며 인터넷 사용비율이 높은 20~40대를 대상으로 온라인조사 참여자의 다양한 인구통계적 구성과 제품구매, 라이프스타일과 같은 특성이 일반인을 모집단으로 하는 대인면접 서베이조사와 비교할 때 어떤 차이가 있는 지를 검토하였다. 이를 위해 인터넷 사용자를 모집단으로 구축된 조사패널을 대상으로 온라인조사를 실시하고 일반 소비자를 대상으로 동일한 내용의 대인면접조사를 실시하여결과를 비교하였다. 그 결과, 온라인조사 참여자들은 오프라인조사의 응답자들에 비해 전반적으로 소득과 학력이 높은 집단으로 나타났으며, 직업에서도 사무․전문 관리직의 비중이 높은 것으로 나타났다. 반면 오프라인조사로 접근하기 어려운 무직이나 저소득층에 대한 접근도 온라인조사를 통해 가능한 것으로 나타났다. 온라인조사 참여자들의 인구통계적 차이는 라이프스타일과 제품구매행태에도 영향을 미쳐 온라인조사 참여자들은 인터넷을 포함한 다양한 매체를 이용하고 정보를 접하면서 제품 구매에 있어 조기수용층(early adopter)의 특성을 보이는 것으로 나타났다