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Skin fibrotic disorders are understood to develop under the influence of various cytokines, such as transforming growth factor(TGF)-β1, connective tissue growth factor(CTGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). To establish an appropriate animal model of skin fibrosis by exogenous application of growth factors, the author investigated the in vivo effects of growth factors by injecting recombinant TGF-β1 protein and pCMV- Flag5-CTGF into the subcutaneous tissue of Sprague- Dawley rats. A single application of TGF-β1 protein and CTGF DNA resulted in the formation of transient granulation tissue. Immunohistochemical finding showed increased expression of TGF-β1 protein after injection of pCMV-Flag5-CTGF. In situ hybridization analysis revealed the expression of CTGF mRNA after injection of TGF-β1 protein. VEGF expression was not affected by the TGF-β1 and CTGF injection. These findings suggest TGF-β1 and CTGF are deeply related with skin fibrosis and it appears that TGF-β1 may cause the induction of CTGF expression. The animal model on skin fibrosis by exogenous application of TGF-β1 protein and CTGF DNA developed in this study may be useful for future studies on fibrotic disorders.
ZnO films were deposited on AlN/Si (111) substrates at 500 ℃ by using ion beam deposition. The as-deposited films were annealed for an hour in a mixture of air and oxygen gas at 700, 800, or 900 ℃. X-ray diffraction revealed that ZnO films were grown epitaxially on the AlN/Si (111) substrates and were oriented along the c-axis. The structural properties were improved by increasing the annealing temperature. The morphology of the ZnO films was changed dramatically after thermal annealing. The optical properties of the annealed ZnO films were examined by using photoluminescence (PL). The PL exhibited near-band-edge (NBE) emission and deep-level emission. The samples annealed at higher temperatures showed strong NBE emission lines, together with longitudinal optical phonon replicas of free exciton recombination.
This thesis aims to clarify the origin and social chracter of mechanic' institutes in the industrial revolution in England. Many histdrians so various as J.W.Hudson, J.Hole, B.Simon emphasized the inability of the institutes to attract the mechanics and the failure of their original object of scientific instruction. This paper aims to re-examine the evidence and arguments used by these critics of the mechanics' institution in the mid-nineteenth century, to see what grounds there are for believing that the institutes were in some sense, successful.
Microvascular surgery has rapidly developed in the last 30 years and vessels of 1.0 mm can be anastomosed easily with a patency rate over 90 percent and is widely used in clinical practice with remarkable success. To obtain more successful microvascular anastomosis in smaller vessels, the improvement in methods of microanastomosis, the development of microvascular instruments including the operating microscope along with microsutures, and anticoagulants are needed. These improvements made microvascular anastomoses of vessels that are less than 0.5mm in extemal diameter possible. Huang et al.? performed anastomoses of the vessels in rats with an external diameter of 0.2 mm using a high magnification operating microscope, specially designed microinstruments, and fine sutures, and achieved a patency rate of 76 percent in the second postoperative week. However, we tried to anastomose vessels with an external diameter of 0.25 mm with ordinary instruments and 11-0 nylon. Animal studies on 180 rats were carried out by doing end-to-end anastomoses and 180 end-to-side anastomoses. In the end-to-end and end-to-side anastomoses, each 180 rats were then divided into 3 groups each. Group A was the control group. Aspirin and persantin were given orally in group B. Ticlopidine hydrochloride was given orally in group C. The method of end-to=end anastomosis was as follows : A superficial epigastric artery as small as 0.25 mm in diameter was severed transversely and longitudinal incisions, the length of the arterial diameter, were made down opposite sides of each end. Each flared fragment of the proximal end is approximated with each distal end and sutured together by only two stitches. The method of end-to-side anastomosis was as follows. In the side of the femoral artery an elliptical hole was made the same length of the circumference of the superficial epigastric artery, then the superficial epigastric artery was incised in the same manner as the end-to-end anastomosis. The flared ends of the superficial epigastric artery were then inserted into the hole of the femoral artery and sutured by four stitches. Light microscopic and scanning electron microscopic observation was performed serially at 3 days, 2 weeks, 3 weeks after the microvascular anastomosis for studying change of vessel diameter and histopathological changes at the microvascular anastomotic sites. The results were as follows : 1. The patency rate for the end-to-end anastomoses in the third postoperative week was 25% in the control group(A), 35% in the aspirin-persantin group(B), and 40% in the ticlopidine group(C) ; in the end-to-side anastomoses, 45% in group A, 50% in group B, and 60% in group C. 2. In the patency rate, the ticlopidine group is slightly higher than the aspirin-persantin group and even higher than the control group (P<0.05) in the end-to-end and end-to-side anastomoses. However, the end-to side group is higher in all 3 groups than the end-to-end one (P<0.1). 3. The intimal regeneration in all arteries was completed at end of the third postoperative week in the end-to-end and end-to-side anastomoses. 4. Changes of the internal diameter in anastomosed vessels showed luminal narrowing in the vessels at the third postoperative day and still narrowing at the second and third postoperative week in the end-to-end anastomoses. However, initial postoperative widening continued into the third postoperative week in the end-to-side anastomoses. The authors got a high success rate of anastomoses of very small arteries approximately 0.25 mm in external diameter, by developing a method of using an ordinary microscope and instruments, 11-0 nylon suture, and the administration of ticlopidine hydrochloride which is a more powerful anticoagulant than aspirin-persatin.
In 1960, Jacobson and Suarez reported a 100 per cent patency rate following the anastomoses of vessels which were 1.6 to 3.2 mm in diameter. This report speeded modern-day microvascular surgery up for the last 20 years. High patency rate is reported in microvascular anastomosis of the 1.0mm diameter, and microvascular surgery is widely used in clinical practice. Improvement in methosds of microanastomoses and development of the microvascular instruments, including the operating microscope along with the microsutures make the microvascular anastomoses of vessels that are less than 0.5mm in diameter opssible. The key problem microvascular surgery is the formation of thrombus which is mainly composed of platelets, causing occlusion of the anastomotic site. So much efforts have been made in developing effective anticoagulants. Currently used systemic anticoagulants are heparin, aspirin and persantin. Aspirin inhibits collagen-induced platelet aggregation and the primary action of persanin is to inhibit platelet aggregation to ADP, collagen, and epinephrine, is widely used as effective anticoagulant for patients of atherosclerosis, hemodialysis, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. An animal study was carried out to investigate the opssibility of tichlopidine-HCI to be used as a choice of anticoagulant in microvascular surgery. One hundred and twenty rats were divided into 3 groups. Group A was the control group. Aspirin and Persantin were given orally in group B. Ticlopidine-HCI was given orally in group C. A superficial epigastric artery as small as 0.25mm in hage devised autogenous fascia and silicone rubber tube method to splint the suture line and reduce the bleeding casued by anticoagulants. Fewer sutures were required, saving time and effort in microvascular repair. The results were as follows: 1. At 20 minutes after anastomoses, the patency rates were 100% in all groups. 2. At 3 days after anastomoses, the patency rates were 75% in the control group(A), 75% in the aspirin-persanting group(B), and 80% in the ticlopidine group(C). 3. At 3 weeks after anastomoses, the patency rates were 70% in the group A, 75% in the group B, and 80% in the group C. It is concluded that the ticlopidine-HCI may be used in the microvascular anastomoses of very small arteries as the anticoagulant of choice.
In the modern era of increasing motorization and industrialization, traffic and industrial accidents are becoming more frequent and serious, which in turn have brought about an increase in facial bone fractures and the pattern of fractures have become more compound and comminuted. The malar eminence is so prominent in oriental people that the zygomatic bone is more frequently fractured than other facial bones. Even a markedly depressed zygomatic fracture can be well reduced with three point interosseous wire fixations including a zygomaticomaxillary buttress, a late depression of the malar eminence occurs frequently due to the pull of the masseter muscle. In order to antagonize the pull of the masseter muscle the authors have devised a new method of external traction using an Ⅳ pole and weights which were all available on the wards. Fifty-seven patients who were admitted at Keimyung University Dong-San Medical Center from November 1987 to August 1988, were treated with 3 point interossous wire fixations and myotomy of the insertion of the masseter muscle. Of the 57, 32 were then managed with the authors' external traction method and the remaining 25 were managed with external traction using Georgiade's halo apparatus. The following results are obtained by comparing our method to Georgiade's : 1. Although the authors' external traction method tends to produce a slight overcorrection(P〉0.05), the results should be improved with experience. 2. Advantages of the authors method are as follows: 1) There is no cost because all needed equipments are obtainable on the wards. 2) The traction apparatus can be easily assembled. 3) It does not annoy the patients and does not necessitate scalp wounds. 4) It is useful for treatment of the patients who have concomitant cranial or cervical bone fractures. 3. Disadvantages are: 1) The authors method is contraindicated in the patient who is not cooperative because the direction of traction can be varied. 2) There is a brief limitation of sustained traction whenever the patient is moved. In summary, the authors external traction method using an IV pole and weights can be used alone and/or as aid to Georgiade's halo apparatus in the post-operative management of depressed zygomatic fractures.