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This study was conducted to develope a new type of readytoeat smoked Sebastes schlegeli product with high acceptability and extended shelflife. A Sebastes schlegeli was salted at 4% salt concentration for 6 hr at 4oC. The cold smoking conditions for the salted Sebastes schlegeli consisted of drying for 2 hr at 22~24oC followed by smoking for 2 hr at 22~24oC. The warm smoking conditions for the salted Sebastes schlegeli consisted of drying for 2 hr at 22~24oC, smoking for 2 hr at 22~24oC, and smoking again for 30 min at 47~50oC. The rancidity of the smoked Sebastes schlegeli did not change after 1 year storage at 20oC by monitering the iodine value, peroxide value, and acid value. The number of viable cells in the cold and warm smoked samples were counted as 7.4×105 and 6.2×105 CFU/g, respectively. Viable cells were not detected after 1 year of storage at 20oC. The sensory evaluations of the processed Sebastes schlegeli showed that elastic texture increased with smoking as compared to with salting. There were no significant differences between cold and warm smoking in terms of sweetness, elastic texture, color, and smoke flavor. However, for overall acceptability, preference were in the oder of cold smoked, warm smoked, and salted. 생선 단백질이 묽은 염류에 녹으면 끈끈한 sol 상을 형성하고, 이를 가열조리하면 독특한 점탄성을 갖는 gel의 원리를 이용하여 조피볼락을 가공하였다. 가공법으로는 염장법과 염장 후 냉훈, 염장 후 온훈 처리를 하는 3가지 가공법을 사용하였다. 염장, 염장 후 냉훈, 염장 후 온훈법에 의한 조피볼락의 가공품은 이러한 처리를 하지 않은 조피볼락에 비해 기호도가 높았다. 조리 시 동결된 생선이 나타내는 단단하고 푸석푸석한 식감은 훈연처리 시 나타나지 않았고 정도차가 있으나 냉훈법을 시행한 조피볼락은 쫄깃하고 특유의 생선 질감을 가졌으며 이는 물성분석 결과와도 일치하였다. 관능검사 시 가공 조피볼락의 조직감은 냉훈법, 온훈법, 염장법 순으로 기호성이 높은 것으로 평가되었다. 가공조피볼락의 색도는 열처리 온도와 시간에 따라 높아져 온훈, 냉훈, 염장 순으로 높게 나타났다. 가공 조피볼락에 대해 유지의 불포화도를 보여주는 요오드가, 유지 산화의 초기 단계에서 산패도의 지표가 되는 과산화물가, 유리 지방산가인 산가를 측정하였다. 가공 직후와 가공 후 -20oC에서 1년간 보관하여 비교 분석하였다. 염장 처리만 한 시료, 온훈법, 냉훈법 시료 모두 유사한 양을 나타냈으며 가공 후 -20oC에서 1년간 보관하여도 조피볼락 가공품의 산화도는 변화를 보이지 않았다. 냉훈법(7.4×105 CFU/g)과 온훈법(6.2×105 CFU/g)으로 가공한 조피볼락의 생균수는 일반적으로 식품에서 검출되는 초기균수인 104~105 CFU/g의 범주에 들었다. 1년간 -20oC에서 보관한 조피볼락에서는 미생물이 검출되지 않았다. 유해 미생물 검사를 통하여 가공조피볼락 모든 시료에서 유해한 미생물은 검출되지 않았다. 본 연구결과에서 조피볼락을 염장(4% NaCl)하고 훈연, 냉동, 포장 등의 복합적 기술을 병행하여 사용함으로써 원료생선의 상미기간을 1년 이상 연장할 수 있었다. 또한 관능적으로 우수한 기호성, 즉석에서 먹을 수 있는 간편성, 장기저장에 의한 식품 산패, 오염 및 변패 미생물의 생육 등이 발생하지 않는 우수한 생선가공, 저장 방법, 저가 생선류의 부가가치 상승 등 여러 유익한 결과를 얻을 수 있는 효과적인 가공방법을 증명하였다.
There are many types of fermented foods worldwide. Generally, traditional fermented foods have nutritive and functional properties. Moreover, they are considered safe foods because they have a long history of being consumed in their local communities. Most traditional fermented foods are fermented by spontaneous fermenting processes conducted by various microorganisms; however, spontaneous fermentation results in inconsistent quality from batch to batch. Although traditional fermented foods were originally made at the household level, they are now produced in massive amounts by the food industry; accordingly, much stricter demands for food security and standardization with high sensory qualities are needed. Traditional fermented foods are good resources for isolation of useful microorganisms harboring antimicrobial activities to be used as starter cultures. Adapting proper regulations and starter system safeguards during the manufacture of kimchi and chongkukjang, which are popularly consumed Korean traditional fermented foods, is helping to ensure that these foods are acceptably safe as well as healthy.
This study was carried out to perform genotoxicological safety evaluation of crude antifungal compounds produced by Bacillus subtilis SN7 (B. subtilis SN7) isolated from meju. Bacterial reverse mutation assay with Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, and TA1537 or Escherichia coli WP2uvrA in the presence and absence of the S9 metabolic activation system was carried out, and the crude antifungal compounds produced by B. subtilis SN7 showed no significant increase in the number of revertant colonies. In the chromosomal aberration tests using Chinese hamster lung (CHL) cells, sample treatment groups showed no increase in the frequency of chromosome aberrations compared to the negative control group. Furthermore, in the micronucleus formation test, the crude antifungal compounds showed no significance increase in the frequency of polychromatic erythrocytes with micronuclei. These results suggest that the crude antifungal compounds produced by B. subtilis SN7 isolated from meju showed no harmful genotoxic effects.
This study investigates the genotoxicity of crude antifungal compounds produced by Lactobacillus plantarum AF1 (L.plantarum AF1) and Lactobacillus plantarum HD1 (L. plantarum HD1) isolated from kimchi. The genetic toxicity of crude antifungal compounds was evaluated in bacterial reverse mutation in Salmonella and Escherichia spp., chromosome aberrations in Chinese hamster lung cells, and micronucleous formations in mice. In bacterial reversion assays with Salmonella Typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537, and WP2uvrA, crude antifungal compounds did not increase the number of revertant colonies in both the absence and presence of the 59 metabolic activation system. In the chromosome aberration test with Chinese hamster lung cells, crude antifungal compounds showed no increase in the frequency of chromosome aberrations in the short-period test with/without the S9 mix or in the continuos test. In the in vivo mouse micronucleus assay, crude antifungal compounds showed no increase in the frequency of polychromatic erythrocytes with micronuclei. The results show that crude antifungal compounds produced by L. plantarum AF1 and L. plantarum HD1 did not induce any genotoxicity.
This study investigates the acute and repeated-dose oral toxicity of crude antifungal compounds produced by Lactobacillus plantarum AF1 (Lb. plantarum AF1) and Lactobacillus plantarum HD1 (Lb. plantarum HD1) in male and female Sprague Dawley rats. In the acute toxicity study, crude antifungal compounds (500, 1,000, and 2,000 ㎎/㎏) did not reduce mortality or produce significant changes in general behaviors or the gross appearance of external and internal organs. In the repeated-dose toxicity study, crude antifungal compounds were administered orally to rats at doses of 500, 1,000, and 2,000 ㎎/㎏ daily for 28 days. There were no test-article-related deaths, abnormal clinical signs, or body weight changes. In addition, there were no significant differences between groups treated with crude antifungal compounds and the control group in their organ weight, hematological and serum biochemical parameters, or any other factors. These results suggest that the acute or repeated-dose oral administration of crude antifungal compounds produced by Lb. plantarum AF1 plus Lb. plantarum HD1 is not toxic in male and female rats.
To provide information on the safety of crude antifungal compounds produced by Bacillus subtilus SN7 isolated from Meju, we carried out an acute (single) oral dose toxicity test and 4 week repeated oral dose determination test on crude antifungal compounds in male and female Sprague Dawley rats. In the acute toxicity test, rats were treated with crude antifungal compounds produced by Bacillus subtilus SN7 orally at increasing dose levels (500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg) and observed for 2 weeks. In the repeated-dose 28-day oral dose determination study, rats were orally administered doses of 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg daily for 4 weeks. There were no test article-related deaths or abnormal clinical signs in the two studies. In the 4 week repeated oral dose determination test, there were also no significant differences in clinical signs, body and organ weight changes, or any other hematological and biochemical parameters between the control and treated groups. The results suggest that the crude antifungal compounds produced by Bacillus subtilus SN7 up to a dosage level of 2,000 mg/kg are not toxic in male and female rats.