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In Korean law, there are only scant statutory sources on personal jurisdiction in civil and commercial disputes. In this background, article 2 of the Korean Private International Law delineates the method of finding or developing law in this area. According to article 2, courts should try to fill this gap by analogy from the venue provisions consisting of territorial standards, while considering the different implications of intemational jurisdiction as opposed to internal venue so as to differentiate rules of jurisdiction from rules of venue, Article 2 requires the courts to clarify the bases of jurisdiction, basically in terms of territorial contacts, and in exceplional cases in terms of a mixture of territorial contacts and policy reasons, Notably, it will not be meaningful to reiterate the language of article 2 without clarifying jurisdictional standards in terms of territorial contacts. Such court practice will fail to produce a set of clear and predictable legal standards and also fail to meet the legislative intent behind article 2. Since the amendment of Korean Private International Law in 2001, there has been a clear tendency in several umpublished lower court cases that compies with such demand as expressed in article 2. According to these judgments, lower courts tend to look for concrete criteria of special jurisdiction in terms of territorial contacts between the dispute and the forum. In the process of such judicial lawmaking the courts will in most cases ask what type of legal relationship is in dispute and which territorial contacts should be the key factor in cach type of case. In this regard, it is surprising to note that the Korean Supreme Court, in its hpweb.com decision in 2005, pursued and opposite way, Literally understood, this precedent requires the courts to focus on the location of evidences, instead of trying to localize the case. If the forum is the locus of most of the evidences on the merits, the court shall have jurisdiction unless there are extraordinary circumstances that shall lead the court to deny its jurisdiction. In this viewpoint, the hpweb.com judgment presents a général theory of personal jurisdiction which seriously underestimates the need of clear and predictable criteria of jurisdiction. This jurisprudence is out of line with the mainstream case law of the Korean Supreme Court that has developed so far. It is submitted that the preoedential value of this judgment should be narrowly construed so as to be confined to the specific facts of the case. The domain name can be a subject of two kinds of disputes, namely infringement of a trademark or another right committed by use of a domain name, and infringement of a right to own a domain name. If the court has special jurisdiction over either one of them, the court will also have jurisdiction over the traditional framework is not without a problem. First, the place of tort jurisdiction should be guarded against overextension. This jurisdictional basis may become more problematic when combined with jurisdiction over a related claim, which increases the importance of narrowing the place of tort concept. On the other hand, a problem is created if the tortfeasor files a lawsuit for a negative declaration of his own tortious liability at the place of tortious act at his choice, because it effectively defeat the policy of preference for the victim. The lower court judgments have tried to manage this problem by imposing purposeful availment standard as borrowed from Justice O Connor s plurality in Asahi Metal Industry Co. v. Superior Court, 480 U.S. 102, 115, 107 S.Ct. 1026, 1034. These precedents reason that jurisdiction may be asserted in the place of tortious result, only if the defendant has purposefully availed the privilèges or benefits of the legal system in that place by way of specific positive activity within or targeted at that place.
목적 : 10년간의 자궁 경부 세포진 검사의 성적을 고찰함으로써 자궁경부암의 관리에 도움을 얻고자 함이었다. 연구 방법 : 1992년부터 2001년까지 자궁경부 세포진 검사를 시행한 34,970예에 대한 결과를 분석하고 검진률, 비정상세포진율, 연령별 및 연도별 분포 그리고 위음성률과 민감도를 구하였다. 결과 : 1. 연도별 평균 검진률은 14.8%였다. 2. 비정상 세포진률은 2.02%였고 그 중 ASCUS가 1.02%, classIII가 0.99%, classIV가 0.20%, classV가 0.30%였다. 3. 검사한 여성 가운데 30세 이하가 8.3%, 40세 이하가 31.8%, 50세 이하가 33.2%, 60세 이하가 17.5%, 70세 이하가 7.3%, 70세 이상이 1.9%였다. 4. ASCUS로 진단된 188예 중 127예 (68%)가 추적관리 되었다. 그 중 99예 (78%)가 정상 및 반응성 경과였고, 28예 (22%)에서 편평상피내 병변을 나타내었다. 5. 10년간의 이형성증 이상의 유병률은 1.53%였고 그 중 자궁경부암의 유병률은 0.65%였다. 6. 10년간의 자궁경부 세포진 검사에 대한 위음성률은 17.3%였고, 위양성률은 4.5%였다. 7. 민감도는 82.7%, 특이도는 95.5%, 양성 예측률은 90.2%였다. 결론 : 자궁경부암의 조기검진수단으로서 세포진 검사의 검진률을 높이고, 위음성률을 낮추고 민감도를 높이려는 계속적인 노력이 필요하다. Objective : To investigate the efficacy of PAP smear as a screening tool for cervical cancer by evaluating the result of review of 34,970 cases of PAP smear at Pohang St. Mary's Hospital. Methods : From January, 1992 to December, 2001 cytologic cxamination of 34,970 women were analysed and the results were reviewed. Results : 1. The average of annual screening rate was 14.8%. 2. Abnormal cytology rate was 2.02% including 1.02% of ASCUS, 0.99% of classⅢ, 0.20% of classⅣ and 0.30% of classⅤ. 3. 8.28% of the women screened were aged less than 30 years, 31.8% <40 years, 33.2% <50 years, 17.5% <60 years, 7.3% <70 years and 1.9% ≥70 years respectively. 4. Of the 188 patients who had a cytologic diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 127 (68%) were followed up, 99 (78%) were normal and 28 (22%) had squamous intraepithelial lesion. 5. The prevalence rate of cervical neoplasia confirmed by histopathology for the past 10 years was 1.53%. Of those the rate of invasive cervical cancer was 0.65%. 6. The false nefative rate was 17.3% and false positive rate was 4.5% 7. The sensitivity and specificity and positive predictive value of PAP smear were 82.7%, 95.5% and 90.2%. Conclusion : For PAP smear to be early detecting tool for cervical cancer, continuous effort is required to raise annual screening rate, to lower the false negative rate, and to raise the sensitivity of PAP smear.
Objective : Auricular acupuncture is a method of treatment that involves needling the ear in order to produce relief of symptoms. This concept was first developed by P.Nogier, french doctor and referred to as somatotopic representation. Many authors have commented the fact that the vagus nerve supplies the external auditory and the concha. The aim of this randomised, single blind study was to investigate whether auricular acupuncture of the ear produced changes in the pulse rate, an indicator of vagal tone. Methods: 10 healthy man volunteers were divided into normal and epinephrine stimulation group. Then each group was divided into vagus area acupuncture and control area acupuncture group again. Epinephrine stimulation group was injected by epinephrine 0.3cc twice, first. All of them were needled in either the vagus area or control area of the ear, and pulse rate changes were measured by patient monitor over 1 hour. Results : In the epinephrine stimulation group, there was significant differences in the pulse rate change between vagus area acupuncture and control area acupuncture group. After injection of epinephrine, the basal pulse rate was increased 1.3~1.4 times in the control group. However, in the vagus area acupuncture group the basal pulse rate was increased only 1.1~1.2 times.
Due to the rapid development of information and communication technology, the ways of communication between people have been changed. According to the Korean Ministry of Information and Communication, more than half of the Korean people (about 30 million) were using mobile phone at the end of 2001, and one-third of mobile phone users would be over 40 year-old people. Due to the popularization of mobile phone, the functions, designs, and using manners of mobile phone have been varied. The size of the mobile phone becomes smaller and letters on the keypad and display are tiny. However, due to the level of accustomed on the mobile phone and aging factors, the using manners and functions during mobile phone use for the over middle-aged would be quite different with young users. The purpose of this study was to find the various using behaviors and functions during mobile phone use for the over middle-aged people. A survey was conducted. One hundred sixty four people (88 males and 76 females) over 40 year-old participated in this study. The results of this study could provide important information to understand the way of using mobile phone for the over middle-aged, and also could be used to design and market the mobile phone.
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선원들은 '배'라는 한정된 생활공간에서 공동생활을 하면서 선원만의 특수한 생활형태를 형성하고 있다. 즉 선원근로자들은 선상작업을 통하여 통일적이고 협동적인 과업수행을 요구 받으며, 바다라는 고립적 환경에서 장기간 단조로운 집단생활로 인하여 상당한 스트레스에 노출되어 있을 것으로 예상된다. 또한 선내의 환경은 운항에 따른 높은 수준의 소음과 선체의 동요, 한랭과 폭염, 습도 등에 노출되어 있으며, 장시간 격리된 채 바다에서 생활함으로써 가족, 친구 등과의 교류의 기회가 제약됨으로써 이러한 요인들 또한 스트레스로 작용할 가능성이 높은 직업군이다. 본 연구에서는 선상환경에서 선원들의 스트레스 요인과 그 대처방안을 모색하고자 그 기초조사로써 예부선 선원근로자의 직무스트레스와 직무만족도 조사를 실시하였다.