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This study emphasizes users' participation, a living-transforming visuality, as users have appeared to be a central element of landscape design but ignored before. Also this study tries to propose meaning of extended visuality in contemporary landscape design on the basis of visual criticism on simple perception-and contemplations convention-based landscape design. For these purposes, this study reviews characteristics of visual changes appeared in modern reductionist paintings. In other words, arts can be interpreted in polysemous ways through bodies' experience. Deconstructive concepts derived from the theoretical reviews can be categorized into three including the participation of the users' bodies from a contemplative point of view, textuality and intertextuality, and experiences from works. Those concepts were used to criticize the previous discourse on landscape designs and to analyze various issues in the theories, themes and techniques in contemporary landscape design. The significance of the expanded visuality in contemporary landscape design is that it brings the users' voluntary participation. This structure can serve as a tool to obtain the users' perceptive effects. At the same time, it can be regarded as a process of establishing the relationships between the users and the works. Thus emphasis is placed not only on the influences of the effects structure of the works themselves, but also on the many different dimensions related to the users' bodies. It implies that the meaning of design is not determined by the designer but a product resulted from the voluntary relationships between users and works. These findings lead to ambiguous distinctions between arts everyday life, and eventually to the end of the concepts of formative dichotomous aesthetics and their effectiveness. Finding of this study call for not only redefining the space where landscape design is created and communicated, but also reconsidering the concepts of landscape design and its ontological meanings.
This study originated from following questions. What can we understand the conception of deconstruction, which has been the core idea of new discourses developed in various ways since modernism? How can this question be interpreted in landscape design? What is the conceptional frame of integration the prominent hybrid post-genre movements and phenomena? The frame can be epitomized with the deconstruction phenomenon. 'Deconstruction' is the core conception appeared in late or post-modern ages in the embodiment of modernity and can be viewed as an integrating or a hybrid phenomenon between areas or genres in formative arts. Therefore, the author regards the hybrid movements widely witnessed in the post contemporary formative arts as one of the most important indicators of de-constructive signs. It is safe to say that the phenomenon of this integration or hybridism, of course, does not threaten the identity of landscape design but serves as an opportunity to extend the areas of landscape design. One of the consequences of this integration or hybridism is the voluntary participation of users who have been alienated in the production of the meanings of design works and hybrid landscape design with the hybridization of genres that is characterized with transformation in forms. This view is based on the distinction between hybridization of interactions between the designer (the subject) and the user (the object), and hybridization of synesthesia. Generally speaking, this is an act of destroying boundaries of the daily life and arts. At the same time, it corresponds to vanishing of modern aesthetics and emerging of post-contemporary aesthetics which is a new aesthetic category like sublimeness. This types of landscape design tries to restore humans' sensibility and perceptions restrained by rationality and recognition in previous approach and to express non-materialistic characteristics with precaution against excessive materialism in the modern era. In light of these backgrounds, the study aims to suggest the hybrid concept and to explorer a new landscape design approach with this concept, in order to change the design structure from 'completed' or 'closed' toward 'opened' and to understand the characteristics of interactions between users and designs. This new approach is expected to create an open-space integrating complexity and dynamics of users. At the same time, it emphasizes senses of user' body with synesthesia and non-determination. The focus is placed on user participation and sublimity rather than on aesthetic beauty, which kind of experience is called simulacre. By attaching importance to user participation, the work got free from the material characteristics, and acceptance from the old practice of simple perception and contemplation. The boundaries between the subject and object and the beautiful and ordinary, from the perspective of this approach, are vanished. Now everything ordinary can become an artistic work. Western dichotomy and discrimination is not effective any more. And there is 'de-construction' where there is perfect equality between ordinary daily life and beautiful arts. Thus today's landscape design pays attention to the user and uses newly perceived sensitivity by pursing obscure and unfamiliar things rather than aesthetic beauty. Space is accordingly defined to take place accidentally as happening and event, not as volume of shape. It's the true way to express spatiality of landscape design. That's an attempt to reject conventional concepts about forms and space, which served as the basis for landscape design, and to search for new things.
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The newly bridge, as amended by the Highway Bridge Seismic design standards and by performing the construction. But, prior to the construction standards apply seismic. Reinforced concrete piers may be vulnerable to an earthquake by the lateral loads. In this study, modeling performed seismic reinforcement and reinforcement techniques through experiments of various types of best seismic reinforcement techniques. It has not been applied Seismic techniques to apply to the existing bridge seismic reinforcement. So, It will be able to performance. In this paper, reinforced through the numerical modeling for the pier reinforcement. The results compared to the after reinforcement against. Displacement was confirmed that more reduction. A non-seismic design for a circular pier models produced. It subject to reduction as a high seismic reinforcement material properties of nickel-chrome alloy using a strip, spiral, horizontal and vertical mixed-seismic reinforcement. It was applied to the experimental. As a result, that the form of a spiral is better than the horizontal and vertical mixed stripes type and strip shape in seismic reinforcement performance was confirmed. 신설된 교량의 경우 최근 개정된 도로교 설계기준에 의하여 내진설계를 수행하여 시공되고 있으나, 내진설계규정이 적용되기 이전에 시공되어 사용 중인 철근콘크리트 교각의 경우에는 지진에 의한 횡하중에 대해 취약할 수 있다. 본 연구에서 수행한 내진보강 모델링 및 실내실험을 통해 여러 형태의 보강기법 중에서 가장 우수한 내진보강 성능을 발휘하는 보강기법을 도출하고, 그 기법을 내진설계가 적용되지 않은 기존교량에 적용시켜 우수한 내진보강 성능을 발휘할 수 있을 것이다. 본 논문에서는 내진보강된 교각에 대하여 모델링을 통한 수치해석결과 보강전에 비하여 보강후 변위에 대하여 감소하는 것을 확인하였다. 실제 비내진 설계된 원형 교각모델에 대하여 축소실험체를 제작하고 내진보강 재료로써 우수한 성질의 니켈-크롬 합금강바를 이용하여 띠형, 나선형, 수평수직 혼합형의 보강을 내진보강에 적용하여 실험하였으며, 그 결과 띠형과 띠, 수직 혼합형의 보강 형태보다는 나선형태의 내진보강이 가장 우수한 내진보강 성능을 나타냄을 확인 하였다.
The uneven shrinkage strain during concrete hardening period is one of the main causes for structure cracking. Therefore, shrinkage monitoring during concrete early age is significant for controlling inner strain distribution by improving curing process, thereby ensuring the quality and safety of whole structures. In this paper, three different methods including using FBG embedded strain sensors with different temperature compensation technique (FBG temperature sensor or thermocouple) and KM embedded strain gauges are used to monitor concrete shrinkage during early age. The experiment results show that all the used method successfully grasp the early age shrinkage of concrete. And quality comparison among these three methods has been analyzed.