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Many recent studies have reported the presence of two types of El Niño events in observation: Cold Tongue (CT) El Niño and Warm Pool (WP) El Niño. We investigate the sensitivity of a model simulating two types of El Niño by changing a convective triggering parameter (Tokioka parameter). When deep convections are highly suppressed with a large Tokioka parameter, the model is capable of simulating distinct two-types of El Niño. However, the model has a problem in simulating two-types of El Niño distinctively when the Tokioka parameter is small, because the location of the maximum precipitation anomaly related to the CT El Niño is significantly shifted westward, leading to an atmospheric response pattern similar to that of the WP El Niño. Our results suggest that the mean precipitation over the eastern equatorial Pacific and the resultant zonal distribution in atmospheric feedback associated with ENSO can be one of the crucial factors for simulating two-types of El Niño.
본 논문은 해안 매립장의 해성점토와 그 기반 풍화토가 갖는 침출수 중의 무기물, 중금속 및 유기물에 대한 오염물 이동성 저감능력을 실내 주상실험에 의하여 조사하였다. 그 결과 무기물 인 칼릅의 경우 해성점토층의 흡착능이 하부 풍화토에 비하여 큰 것으로 나타났으며 중금속인 납과 카드윰의 경우는 매립장 실제 배출 농도보다 큰 농도에서도 완전 흡착되는 것으로 나타났다. 유기성 폐기물에 대한 실험결과 그 흡착능이 무기물이나 중금속에 비하여는 떨어지나 침출수내의 난분해성 유기물질을 기반 점토 및 풍화토가 저감시킬 수 있는 것으로 나타났다. In this paper, the retardation capacity of marine clay and weathered soil of seashore waste landfill is analyzed by using a laboratory column apparatus for organic and inorganic components which can represent the components of the leachate of municipal waste landfill. The results show that sorption capacity marine clay for potassium is larger than that of weathered soil. Lead and cadmium are adsorbed completely at concentrations higher than the real concentrations developed in the landfill. The bottom soils of seashore landfill can also retard some nondegradable components of organics although their sorption capacities for organics were less than those for inorganics.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the current management status of patients with urological issues and to examine the level of knowledge and practice behaviors regarding urinary incontinence (UI) among Korean healthcare providers in long-term care hospitals. Methods: This study used a cross-sectional descriptive design with a written questionnaire to assess knowledge and practice behaviors of 756 healthcare providers in 11 long-term care hospitals in Korean metropolitan areas. Results: A total 42.6% of participants reported that more than 50% of patients had urologic issues, and that 68.1% of patients were regularly sent to urologists; no participants reported an on-site urologist in their facility. Participants identified collaboration with other hospitals and regular consultations by urologists as important factors in improving urologic care. Although the overall UI knowledge score was upper intermediate, a knowledge deficit was found for risk factors of UI. The knowledge level of physicians was significantly higher than that of other healthcare providers. Practice behaviors of nurses seemed to be better than those of other healthcare providers. Conclusions: Systematic collaboration between healthcare providers and urologic specialists, enhancing staff competence, and patient-tailored intervention should be recommended to improve quality of care for patients with urologic issues in longterm care hospitals.
Many countries all over the world have been doing lunar exploration projects. Korea has also been doing basic research on lunar exploration. The development of communication systems for lunar exploration projects is one of the most important aspects of performing a successful lunar mission. In this paper, we design a DSP (Digital Signal Processor) prototype based on the requirement analysis of a communication link for lunar exploration and implement its core module considering the international standards for deep space communications to perform a basic research on baseband processor development. It is verified by comparing the bit error rate of the DSP prototype with that of a computer simulation. 세계 각국은 달 탐사에 대한 연구를 활발하게 진행하고 있으며 우리나라에서도 달 탐사 임무를 수행하기 위한 기초연구가 이루어지고 있다. 성공적인 달 탐사 임무 수행을 위한 통신 시스템의 개발은 달 탐사 프로젝트에 있어서 중요한 부분이다. 본 논문에서는 기저대역 프로세서 개발을 위한 기본 연구로써 달 탐사 통신 링크에 대한 요구조건 분석을 바탕으로 DSP 프로토타입 시스템을 설계하고 심우주 통신을 위한 국제 표준을 고려하여 각 핵심 모듈을 구현한다. DSP 프로토타입의 비트 오류 확률 값을 컴퓨터 시뮬레이션 결과와 비교함으로써 검증한다.
In this paper, we evaluated stereoscopic video performance transmitted through wireless channel. Human’s visual perception capabilities of two eyes are different and one of two eyes is predominant one for visual perception. Thus using this human visual characteristic, there is no problem to recognize the 3D perception even if we sent relatively low quality of one of two video information for reducing the amount of data. If we use the constituting gain channel with Gray mapping for hierarchical 16-QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) called as (16-HQAM), we allocated the predominant video compressed data using H.264/AVC(Advanced Video Compression) to high gain channel and the compressed data of the other side video to low gain channel and send them. The simultaneously compressed video information of two views is sent through AWGN(additive White Gaussian Noise) channel environment. Controlling the channel gain, we discuss PSNR(Peak Signal to Noise Ratio) and CDF(Cumulative Distribution Function) performance. 본 논문에서는 계층 변조를 이용하여 비대칭 입체 영상 전송의 성능을 분석한다. 사람의 시각인지 능력은 양쪽 눈이 동일하지 않고, 사람마다 인지하는 영상의 화질을 주로 판단하는 우세안을 갖고 있다. 이를 이용하면 동일한 품질의 입체 영상이 아니라 한쪽의 영상을 낮은 품질로 압축하여 전송 데이터 양을 줄이더라도 입체 영상 인식에 문제가 발생하지 않게 된다. 이 특징을 Gray 심벌 맵핑을 이용하여 16-QAM 계층 변조를 할 때 심벌에 포함된 비트들 간의 이득 불균형이 존재하는 것을 이용하므로, 왼쪽(혹은 오른쪽) 영상은 높은 이득 비트들에, 오른쪽(혹은 왼쪽) 영상은 낮은 이득을 갖는 비트들에 배정하여 전송이 가능하다. H.264/AVC를 이용하여 왼쪽과 오른쪽 영상을 동시에 압축하고, AWGN 무선 환경을 통하여 전송한다. 이득 불균형 정도를 조절함에 따른 무선 채널을 통하여 전송되는 비대칭 입체 영상의 PSNR과 CDF 성능을 평가하였다.
Objective: Dental caries and periodontal disease can be influenced by various conditions of oral environment as salivary factors and oral micro-organism factors. Inorder to analyse the influencing factors with these two diseases. Methods: 72 of adults age 20S and 30S of volunteers were collected and performed oral examination for estimate DMFT, PMA, PHP and CPI. Amounts of Gingival Crevicular Fluid (GCF) was measured with the wet paper. Such oral environmental factors as salivary test, oral humidity and Snyder test were checked. Oral micro-organisms were also observed by use of the phase contrast microscope. Correlation coefficient was estimated between the oral status and each environmental factor. Results: There was no relation between GCF and some periodontal index of young adults with healthy gingiva, except the age factor, otherwise much related between in Snyder test and caries experience. Conclusion: The activity of the filamentous and spiral types oral microorganism was related with periodontal status otherwise Cocci in negative relation. Objective: Dental caries and periodontal disease can be influenced by various conditions of oral environment as salivary factors and oral micro-organism factors. Inorder to analyse the influencing factors with these two diseases. Methods: 72 of adults age 20S and 30S of volunteers were collected and performed oral examination for estimate DMFT, PMA, PHP and CPI. Amounts of Gingival Crevicular Fluid (GCF) was measured with the wet paper. Such oral environmental factors as salivary test, oral humidity and Snyder test were checked. Oral micro-organisms were also observed by use of the phase contrast microscope. Correlation coefficient was estimated between the oral status and each environmental factor. Results: There was no relation between GCF and some periodontal index of young adults with healthy gingiva, except the age factor, otherwise much related between in Snyder test and caries experience. Conclusion: The activity of the filamentous and spiral types oral microorganism was related with periodontal status otherwise Cocci in negative relation.