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During cleaning and shaping of narrow and curved canals, it is very difficult or nearly impossible to maintain the original canal shape. Procedural accidents such as, ledge, zipping, perforation, and instrument breakage are frequently occurred and even may lead to failure of endodontic therapy. To prevent these kinds of accidents, various instrumentation techniques and materials have been introduced. Recently some nickel titanium (NiTi) files are introduced and it is reported that These NiTi files created rounder preparations with less transportation than conventional instruments in curved canals. This study compared the change of the canal curvature and procedural accidents after instrumentation produced by stainless steel K-flexo file, and NiTi rotary files (Profile 29 and Quantec 2000). Thirty narrow and curved canals (25-45 degree) of extracted human molars were randomly divided into three groups. In group 1, canals were instrumented using a step-back and watch-winding/pull motion with K-flexo files. In group 2, canals were prepared with Profile 29. Group 3, canals were prepared with Quantec 2000 files. Before and after preparation of canals, periapical radiographs were taken and scanned. The change of canal curvature were measured using Photoshop 4.0 program and the incidence of procedural accidents were also evaluated. The results were as follows : 1. All group showed some loss of canal curvature after instrumentation. 2. Average loss of canal curvature was 6.70±5.31 degree for group 1, 3.80±2.57 degree for group 2, and 5.40±4.83 degree for group 3. All group There was significant change in curvature between before and after instrumentation (p<0.05). But there was no statistical difference amoung 3 groups. 3. In group 1, there were no procedural accidents, such as ledging, perforation, or instrument fracture. In group 2, two cases of ledge and one case of instrument fracture were produced. Goup 3, each one case of ledge, perforation and instrument fracture were occurred. Whthin the limits of above results, It seems that NiTi rotary instrumentation is not All Mighty and if we use uncarefully, it is more dangerous to produce some procedural accidents than conventional hand files. But more studies should be taken to evaluate the exact effects of NiTi rotary instrumentations.
Instability following total knee arthroplasty is one of the major causes of revision surgery. In most cases, it can be prevented by using an appropriate prosthesis and a good surgical technique. Particular attention should be given to confirmation of diagnosis for which thorough history taking, complete physical examination and radiographic evaluation are needed. With regard to treatment, identification of the etiology of instability is crucial for establishing proper treatment plans; instability would persist without correction of the cause of the initial instability. For successful revision surgery, balanced medio-lateral and flexion-extension gaps should be achieved. Constrained or rotating-hinge total knee prosthesis should also be considered as an alternative option for certain subsets of patients with instability.
Performance of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), in comparison with that under hydrogen fuel, were investigated under direct internal reforming conditions. Anode supported cells were fabricated with an Ni+YSZ anode, YSZ electrolyte, and LSM+YSZ cathode for the present work. Measurements of I-V curves and impedance were conducted with S/C (steam to carbon) ratio of ~ 2 at 800oC. The outlet gas was analyzed using gas chromatography under open circuit condition; the methane conversion rate was calculated and found to be ~ 90% in the case of low flow rate of methane and steam. Power density values were comparable for both cases (hydrogen fuel and internal steam reforming of methane), and in the latter case the cell performance was improved, with a decrease in the flow rate of methane with steam, because of the higher conversion rate. The present work indicates that the short-term performance of SOFCs with conventional Ni+YSZ anodes, in comparison with that under hydrogen fuel, is acceptable under internal reforming condition with the optimized fuel flow rate and S/C ratio.
Blink reflex can be used for electrophysiological study of the brainstem function. Blink reflex shows status of polysynaptic pathway through relay of complex route, especially pons and lateral medulla. We diagnosed lesion in pons and medulla using blink reflex study in a 45-month-old girl showing severe dysarthria, dysphagia and ataxia with no evidence of abnormality from brain MRI and BAEP study. We suggest blink reflex study as a good diagnostic method for evaluating patient with dysphagia to differentiate brainstem lesion, from cerebral lesion especially in equivocal brain MRI results. Blink reflex study is more useful with advantage of non-invasive and cost effective, and more accurate than BAEP study or brain MRI in brainstem lesion.
The stability of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack is strongly dependent on the magnitude and profile of the internal chemical potential of the solid electrolyte. If the internal partial pressure is too high, the electrolyte can be delaminated from the electrodes. The formation of high internal pressure is attributed to a negative cell voltage, and this phenomenon can occur in a bad cell (with higher resistance) in a stack. This fact implies that the internal chemical potential plays an important role in determining the lifetime of a stack. In the present work, we fabricate planar type anode-supported cells ($25cm^2$) with a bi-layer electrolyte (with locally increased electronic conduction at the anode side) to prevent high internal pressure, and we test the fabricated cells under a negative voltage condition. The results indicate that the addition of electronic conduction in the electrolyte can effectively depress internal pressure and improve the cell stability.