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The visual evoke potential(VEP) is the effective method to diagnose and treat the amblyopia or to check the infants visual ability. In order to evaluate the changes of P100 latencies and amplitudes of VEP by intensity of illumination and refractive errors, we measured latencies and amplitudes of 41 normal adults (20/20 VA) who have no ocular diseases and neurologic diseases. The results were as follows: In the scotopic condition, the latencies were N7575.833.69 msec, P100103.485.34 msec, the P100 amplitude was 14.862.43 msec, and in the photopic condition, the latencies were N7576.713.11 msec, P100107.265.54 msec and the P100 amplitude was 10.351.75 msec. The latencies and amplitudes ofP100 in the photopic condition had higher values than those in the scotopic condition and the measures were significantly different between the scotopic and photopic condition (p<0.01). The P100 latencies were delayed both in the scotopic and photopic condition with the refractive errors and those measures were delayed more than in the photopic condition. The P100 amplitudes in the induced myopic and hyperopic conditionsreduced than in the emmetopes in both illumination conditions. The P100 latencies and amplitudes in emmetropes showed a correlation with the induced myopic conditions in the scotopic condition. Those results showed that P100 latencies and amplitudes are dependent on the illumination conditions and refractive errors. And we suggest that those results would be useful to determine and evaluate the normal range for the person considering patients' refractive errors and illumination of the test room. 약시의 진단 및 치료와 자각하지 못하는 영유아의 시력검사에 유용하게 사용되는 VEP 검사는 검사실 조도와 굴 절이상도에 따라 차이가 날 수 있다. 본 연구에서는 정상인에서 조도와 굴절이상도에 따라 나타나는 시유발전위 (VEP) 검사값의 변화를 관찰하기 위하여 안과 및 신경질환이 없는 시력이 1.0(20/20) 이상인 성인 41명(남자 24명, 여자 17명)을 대상으로 조도와 굴절이상도에 따라 VEP P100 잠복기와 진폭을 측정하여 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었다. Scotopic 상태에서 N75 잠복기는 75.833.69 msec, P100 잠복기는 103.485.34 msec, P100 진폭은 14.862.43 msec이 며, photopic 상태에서 N75 잠복기는 76.713.11 msec, P100 잠복기는 107.265.54 msec, P100 진폭은 10.351.75 msec으로 측정되었다. Photopic 상태에서 P100 잠복기와 진폭은 scotopic 상태에서보다 모두 증가하였으며 두 값은 통계적으로 유의하게 차이가 있었다(p<0.01). 굴절이상을 유발한 경우 P100 잠복기는 scotopic 및 photopic 상태에서 모두 정시상태보다 지연되었으며(p<0.01), photopic 상태에서 더 많이 지연되었다. P100 진폭도 굴절이상을 유발한 경우 scotopic 상태와 photopic 상태에서 모두 정시상태보다 감소하였다. 정시상태의 P100 잠복기와 진폭은 scotopic 상태에서는 근시를 유발한 상태 값과 상관성이 있는 것으로 나타났다. 이상의 결과로 정상인의 경우에 P100 잠복기 와 진폭은 검사실 조도에 따라, 굴절이상도에 따라 측정값이 달라진다는 것을 확인할 수 있었으며, 이 결과는 VEP 측정 시에 조도와 굴절이상도를 고려하여 측정값을 해석할 때 유용하게 사용되리라 생각된다.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the main waste gas components of the steel industry and biomass gasification process. CO has also been highlighted as a feedstock for biological conversion to platform and valueadded chemicals. Conventional CO-converting strains have drawbacks of slow growth rate and high sensitivity to oxygen as well as low conversion yield. Most CO conversion microbes harbor the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway (WLP) and CO-dehydrogenase, and the reducing equivalent is significantly limited for acetyl-CoA synthesis. In this study, electrochemically active CO converting strains were isolated and characterized using zero valent iron (ZVI) granules (Fe0) as an external electron donor. The strains isolated from ZVI augmented enrichment could also use a carbon electrode as the electron donor, and simultaneously convert CO to acetate and VFAs in a bioelectrochemical system. From enrichment and isolation with ZVI, both Clostridium sp. HN02 and Fonticella sp. HN43 were isolated and showed higher performance for acetate production from CO in BES, and electrochemical activity by cyclic voltammetry.
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Purpose: The study present the central retina arterial supply, optic disc shape, RNFL (retinal nerve fiber layers) thickness and optic disc rim area. Methods: To evaluate the relationship between central retina artery pattern, optic disk shape, and RNFL thickness was measured using optical coherence tomography (OCT3000) and pattern of the central retinal artery were investigated by TRC50IX. Healthy Koreans (107 males, 97 females) were enrolled in this study. The classification is made by dividing surface of the nerve head into ten sector. Results: As a result of the shape of the optic disc divided into four group, vertically oval were 54%. The results showed the central retinal artery, in 252 eyes, had its origin in the center. None of the eyes had their origin on temporal side. RNFL thickness according to OCT parameter was superior, 127.6816.16 Conclusions: In summary, this study indicates that in healthy Koreans the shape of the optic disc is vertically oval and the origin of their central retinal artery is at the center. The RFNL thickness of both the superior and inferior quadrants was 127 m according to OCT.
Carbon monoxide (CO) has been discharged from steel industry and biomass gasification process, highlighted as a feedstock for biological conversion to platform and value-added chemicals. The conventional strains for CO conversion has problems of low growth rate and high sensitivity to oxygen as well as lower conversion yield. Biological conversion of CO is conducted by specific bacteria harboring the wood-ljungdahl pathway (WL pathway) and CO-dehydrogenase. In this study, we attempted to isolate and characterize the novel CO converting strains from the river sediment using the media having the iron bead (Fe0) as external electron source. As a result, 9 strains were isolated and most of the strains were characterized as Clostridium species. CO conversion rates and efficiencies of all 9 strains were compared, and the isolated strains were deposited to KCTC (Clostridium botulinum HN02 and Fonticella tunisiensis HN43).