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This study compares the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities of acetone extracts obtained from commercially available tomatoes (gangwon chal, wansuk, cherry, daechu cherry, plum, and campari). Campari and cherry tomatoes had the highest levels of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, as well as cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), followed sequentially by gangwon chal, daechu cherry, plum and wansuk varieties. Highest peroxynitrite scavenging activity, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and total phenolic contents were obtained in campari tomatoes, followed by cherry, gangwon chal, daechu cherry, plum and wansuk varieties. Lycopene contents were highest in cherry tomato, followed by daechu cherry and campari, and were lowest in the gangwon chal, plum and wansuk varieties. Maximum inhibition of the lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 cells was observed in campari tomatoes, followed by cherry, daechu cherry, gangwon chal, plum and wansuk varieties. Antioxidant activities, including hydroxyl radical and peroxynitrite scavenging, ORAC, and CUPRAC, showed a high correlation with the total phenolic or lycopene contents. Anti-inflammatory capacity was highly correlated with antioxidant activities, total phenolic, and lycopene contents. Taken together, findings of the current study demonstrate that campari and cherry tomatoes have the most potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, which are closely related to the lycopene as well as polyphenolic contents.
This paper investigates bootstrap confidence intervals of the process capability index(PCI1 based on the expected loss derived from the empirical distribution function(EDF1. The PCI based on the expected loss is too complex to derive its confidence interval analytically, so the bootstrap method is a good alternative. We propose three types of the bootstrap confidence interval; the standard bootstrap(SB1, the percentile bootstrap(PB1, and the acceleration biased-corrected percentile bootstrap(ABC1. We also perform a comprehensive simulation study under various process distributions, in order to compare the accuracy of the coverage probability of the bootstrap confidence intervals. In most cases, the coverage probabilities of the bootstrap confidence intervals from the EDF PCI turned out to be more accurate than those from the PCI based on the normal distribution. It is expected that the bootstrap confidence intervals from the EDF PCI can be utilized in real processes where the true distribution family may not be known.
We propose an imperfect repair model which depends on external effect quantified by covariates. The model is based on the Brown-Proschan imperfect repair model wherefrom the probability of perfect repair is represented by a function of covariates. We are motivated by deficiency of the BP model whose stationarity prevents us from predicting dynamically the time to next failure according to external condition. Five types of function for the probability of perfect repair are proposed. This article also presents a procedure for estimating the parameter of the function for the probability of perfect repair. as well as the inherent lifetime distribution of the system. based of consecutive inter-failure times and the covariates. The estimation procedure is based on the expectation-maximization principle which is suitable to incomplete data problems. Focusing on the maximization step. we derive some theorems which guarantee the existence of the solution. A Monte Carlo study is also performed to illustrate the prediction power of the model as well as to show reasonable properties of the estimates. The model reduces significantly the mean square error of the in-sample prediction, so if can be utilized in real fields for evaluating and maintaining repairable systems.
We propose a method for estimating the probability of perfect PM from successive failure times of a repairable system. The system under study is maintained preventively at periodic times, and it undergoes minimal repair at failure. We consider Brown-Proschan imperfect PM model in which the system is restored to a condition as good as new with probability p. and is otherwise restored to its condition just prior to failure. We discuss the identifiability problem when the PM modes are not recorded. The expectation-maximization principle is employed to handle the incomplete data problem. We assume that the lifetime distribution belongs to a parametric family with increasing failure rate. For the two parameter Weibull lifetime distribution, we propose a specific algorithm for finding the maximum likelihood estimates of the reliability parameter: the probability of perfect PM (P). as well as the distribution parameters. The estimation method will provide useful results for maintaining real systems.
The objectives of present study were to investigate the effects of benzo[a]pyrene(BaP) on cytotoxicity, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in rat hepatocyte primary culture. Primary cultures of rat hepatocytes were incubated for 24 hr, 48 hr or 72 hr in the presence of various concentrations (0, 10, 20, 30, 50 or 100 μ M) of BaP. Cytotoxicity and cell viability were determined by measuring glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase(GOT) activity, lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) activity and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide(MTT) value. Lipid peroxidation was evaluated using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances(TBARS) assay. Effects on antioxidant system were determined by measuring glutathione peroxidase(GPx) activity, glutathione reductase(GR) activity and glutathione concentration. Activities of GOT and LDH, MTT value as well as TBARS concentration were not affected by up to 100 μ M of BaP for 24 hr incubation. However, BaP at the concentration of 50 μ M for 48 hr incubation or at the concentration of 30 μ M for 72 hr incubation began to increase LDH activity and TBARS concentration but decrease MTT value, representing that BaP caused cytotoxicity and decreased cell viability in dose- and time-dependent manners. GPx activity began to be decreased by BaP at the concentration of 50 μ M for 72 hr incubation. Whereas, GR activity began to be decreased by BaP at the concentration of 20 μ M for 72 hr incubation. Glutathione concentration began to be decreased by BaP at the concentration of 20 μ M for 72 hr incubation and was further reduced to 90% by 100 μ M of BaP. These results demonstrate that BaP caused cytoctoxicity and decreased cell viability by increasing lipid peroxidation and decreasing glutathione concentration as well as activities of GPx and GR.
This paper investigates the economic design of synthetic control charts. The synthetic control chart has been proven to be statistically superior to the X-control chart, but its economic characteristics have not been known. We develop an economic model of the synthetic control chart, based on Duncan's model. The synthetic chart has one more decision variable, the lower control limit for the conforming run length. In addition to this, the significance level and the power of the synthetic chart are more complicated than those of the X-chart. These features make the optimization problem more difficult. We propose an optimization algorithm by adapting the congruent gradient algorithm. We compare the optimal cost of the synthetic chart with that of x -control chart, under the same input parameter set of Duncan's. For all cases investigated, the synthetic chart shows superior to the X-chart. The synthetic control chart is easy to implement, and it has better characteristics than the X-chart in economical sense as well as in statistical sense, so it will be a good alternative to the traditional control charts.
This study compared the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities of acetone extracts from commercially available soybeans with reddish (Gangnang-kong, Ultari-kong, and Lentils), black (Heuk-tae, Seori-tae, and Seomok-tae), and yellow (Baek-tae and Chickpea) seed coats. Reddish soybeans had the highest 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-, superoxide-, and peroxynitrite-scavenging activities as well as the highest cupric reducing antioxidant capacities, followed by black soybeans; yellow soybeans showed the lowest value. The oxygen radical absorbance capacities and total phenolic contents of reddish and black soybeans were similar and higher than those of yellow soybeans were. Supercoiled DNA strand breakage induced by the hydroxyl radical was inhibited more by reddish soybeans compared to black or yellow soybeans. Lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production in RAW 264.7 cells was inhibited more by reddish or black soybeans than yellow soybeans. The antioxidant activities, including DPPH radical scavenging, superoxide scavenging, and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity, were strongly correlated with the total phenolic and total flavonoid contents. The anti-inflammatory capacity was strongly correlated with the total flavonoid content. Therefore, these findings show that reddish or black soybeans had more potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects than yellow soybeans, possibly due to their high phenolic contents.
Growth hormone(bGH) and prolactin(bPRL) are members of a family of polypeptide hormones which have evolved from a common ancestral gene. It is well known that bGH and bPRL have a major impact on growth, lactation and mammary gland development in dairy cattle. Therefore, these hormone genes are a potential target as candidate genes for studies of molecular variation in connection with studies of the genetic variation of milk performance and for analysis of linkage with quantitative traits. The objective of the present study was to analyze RFLP molecular variation of bGH and bPRL genes using the PCR method, to analyze associations between PCRRFLP markers and quantitative traits such as milk production and compositions (fat, protein, lactose, solid-not-fat and total solid) and to develop genetic markers influencing production traits in dairy cattle. The bGH and bPRL genes were amplified by PCR using the allele specific primers. The amplified products were digested with Alu I for bGH and Rsa I for bPRL and electrophoresis was performed to detect RFLPs, respectively. Three different genotypes, AA, AB and BB, controlled by two alleles A and B were observed in both bGH and bPRL loci. Gene frequencies of the A and B alleles were 0.742 and 0.258 for bGH locus and 0.730 and 0.270 for bPRL locci. Genotype frequencies of the AA, AB and BB were 50.0, 48.4 and 1.6% for bGH and 62.1, 21.8 and 16.1% for bPRL, respectively. Effects of each hormone marker loci on 305-day first lactation milk yield and milk compositions were analyzed by a least squares analysis of variance which included RFLP genotypes as a main effect. The effects of bGH locus were significant for milk protein percentage. Cows with the AA genotype had higher protein percentage than those with AB type(P$lt;.OS). The bPRL locus had a significant effect on milk yield, fat percentage and SNF percentage. Cows with the AA genotype had higher milk yield, fat and SNF percentages than those with BB type(P$lt;.OS). Therefore, it would be advantage to select for cows with A gene or AA genotypes in both loci. Consequently, RFLP markers of these hormone loci could be used as selection aids for genetic improvement of economically important traits in Holstein dairy cattle. In the present study, the development of PCR-RFLP technique for genotyping bGH and bPRL loci was shown to be a more rapid and sensitive method than traditional RFLP methods for the identification of genotypes of animals.
Genotypes of K-casein(K-CN) locus as a genetic marker linked to quantitative trait loci affecting traits of economic importance in dairy cattle were determined by PCR-RFLP method. Genomic DNA was prepared from blood of Holstein cows. The PCR was used to amplify an 874 by region between nucleotides 10592 and 11466 from exon IV to intron IV of the bovine K-CN gene using sense primer(5'-GTGCTGAGTAGGTATCCTAG-3') and antisense primer(5'GTAGAGTGCAACAACACTGG-3'). After amplification, PCR products were digested with four restriction enzymes, Hind III, Rsa I, Taq I, and Pst I, and the fragments were separated by agarose gel electrophoresis for RFLP analysis of K-CN locus. In addition to screening for the known Hind III and Rsa I restriction site polymorphisms of K-CN locus, we have found additional RFLPs specific for the K-CN A and B alleles in Taca I and Pst I enzymes. The amplified DNA product digested with each restriction enzyme generated specific RFLP pattern that allowed precise identification of K-CN AA, BB or AB genotypes. The K-CN genotypes determined for cows by the PCR-RFLP method agreed completely with the phenotypes obtained from milk samples of the same individuals. Thus, PCR amplification and RFLP analysis was shown to be a rapid and sensitive method for the discrimination of K-CN genotypes directly at the DNA level in dairy cattle of any age or sex. Consequently, the PCR-RFLP method presented in this study can be used as a valuable tool for early selection of AI bulls and calves with desirable K-CN B gene or K-CN BB genotype affecting superior milk production traits for genetic improvement of Holstein dairy cattle.