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Huperzia lucidula (Michaux) Trevis.의 동북아시아 집단 및 북미 집단을 대상으로 외부형태와 포자형태를 비교한 결과 잎의 형태, 엽연부, 잎에서의 기공의 분포 및 포자의 형태에 있어서 뚜렷히 구분되었다. 따라서, 동북아시아 집단을 북미 지역의 H. lucidula와는 독립된 종 H. asiatica (Ching) B.-Y. Sun and J. Lim으로 분리, 승격하였다. 또한, H. serrata (Thunb.) Trevis.와 동일 종 또는 종내 분류군으로 인식되어 오던 H. javanica (Sw.) C. Yang은 영양엽에서 엽병의 발달 유무, 엽연 거치의 수 그리고 무성아가지의 중앙 열편 모양으로 별개의 종으로 처리하는 견해를 지지하였다. A comparison of the external morphology and spores clearly distinguished Huperzia lucidula (Michaux) Trevis. in northeast Asia and North America in terms of leaf shape, leaf margin, distribution of stomata on leaves, and spore shape. Therefore, the northeast Asian plants should be treated as a separate species, H. asiatica (Ching) B.-Y. Sun & J. Lim. In addition, we believe that H. javanica (Sw.) C. Yang, regarded as conspecific or infraspecific with H. serrata (Thunb.) Trevis., is a distinct species based on the presence of a leaf petiole and serrated leaf margins, and the shape of the gemmiferous branchlets.
This research is to examine how Whitman`s view of religion has been fulfilled in his poem, “So long!” Since first published in the third edition of 1860 Leaves of Grass. “So long!” was an official farewell poem of Whitman. From the Roman times on, the tradition of writers saying good-bye(l`envoy) to their books has meant sending the books away from them, farewell given toward the inhuman books. Whitman`s “so long” contains the meanings of “till we meet again” and implies the expectation of reunion. Whitman has a belief in immortality and his religious vision is more real than conceptual, believing the absolute reality beyond the visible world. In “So long!,” when saying good-bye to readers, Whitman the poet becomes Whitman the text itself, and his farewell is not the end or completion. It is the promise of meeting again as an immortal text. Therefore, Whitman`s “So long!” is a farewell until future becomes present, and by Whitman the man becoming Whitman the text, his religious vision on immorality and his religious insight have been realized in the poem. (Chungnam National University)
This study argues that resyllabification in English only takes place when the vowel preceding the intervocalic consonant is a stressed lax vowel by conducting a production experiment with 6 English native speakers. The experiment analyzed duration of the vowels before voiced and voiceless stops in English. The data consisted of monosyllabic and bisyllabic nonce words in English. The results revealed that the vowels were longer before voiced stops than before voiceless stops in monosyllabic words(CVC). As for bisyllabic words(CVCVC), however, the lax vowels [ɑ] and [ɪ] were significantly longer before voiced consonants only when they got stressed. In contrast, the diphthong [ɑɪ] and the tense vowel [i] were not longer before voiced consonants regardless of their stresshood. These results suggest that resyllabification in CVCVC occurs only when the first syllable contains a stressed lax vowel in English. These results will be discussed in light of the syllable structure in English against a superheavy syllable.
This research will attempt to find a biblical legacy in Walt Whitman`s “Song of Myself” and demonstrate that he had a poetic vision of his writings being used as the new sacred text of American myth. The American myth was based on the Puritan heritage and the Bible had become an essential part of the American myth. With the vision of writing a new American Bible, Whitman fused into his poetry two great themes - the ongoing story of a country and a story of a complete man, Christ. Some biblical messages and functions are found in “Song of Myself”: from the Law, the Prophet, and the Wisdom Literature of the Old Testament and from the Gospel, the Letters, and the Revelation of the New Testament. Northrop Frye insists that the Bible is the story of “revelation.” With the vision of writing a New Sacred Text, Whitman himself became a new sacred text of a new American Bible by using Jesus as his poetic model, by being the light of revelation himself, as Christ became the new sacred text by the typological fulfillment of various Old Testament symbols. (KAIST)
Northrop Frye points out that the content of the Bible describes the procession of revelation, which set up an imaginative framework for the western literature. Walt Whitman, whose poetic concerns are his audience’s spiritual health, longs to become a biblical prophet to American people, and he finds his inspiration for the poet-prophet in Christ, Messiah in the Bible. Whitman’s founding poem, “Song of Myself” is the result of his yearning to express the Christlike poet-prophet in the form of a myth or symbol. He accomplishes this by first identifying Walt Whitman, nineteenth-century American, with everyone, and then relating his development in such a way as to identify him with Christ, proclaiming the individual as his own Messiah. Therefore, “Song of Myself” should be read as one of the great inspired prophetic works in which Whitman himself serves as a holy testament identified with Christ. (KAIST)
Acinetobacter baumannii는 병원환경에 광범위하게 분포하고 있으며, 원내감염의 중요한 원인균으로 병원에서 집단감염 일으키고, 중증의 기저질환을 가진 환자에게 감염되면 감염환자의 사망률이 다른 환자에 비해 월등히 높은 것으로 알려져 있다. 본 연구는 충청남도 천안시에 소재한 대학병원 두 곳의 진단검사의학과에 의뢰된 가검물에서 분리한 다제 내성 A. baumannii 85주의 항생제내성률과 내성유전자 양상에 대해 조사하였다. Carbapenemase와 Class B .-lactamase의 생성균주를 선별하기 위하여 modifiedHodge test (MHT)와 IMP-EDTA double-disk synergy test를 실시하였다. 항생제 내성을 유발하는 carbapenemases, 16S rRNAmethylases, aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (AMEs)을 확인하기 위하여 PCR을 시행 하였으며, A. baumannii가 분리된 두대학병원간 분리균주의 유전학적인 근연도를 확인하기 위해 REP-PCR을 시행하였다. 실험결과 3균주를 제외한 82균주(96.5%)에서 bla<sub>OXA-23-like</sub>과 bla<sub>OXA-51-like</sub>이 검출되었다. bla<sub>OXA-23-like</sub>유전자가 검출된 균주에서는 bla<sub>OXA-23-like</sub> 유전자 상부에 ISAba1유전자가 확인되어 carbapenemase에 대한 내성을 유도하는 것으로 확인 되었다. Aminoglycoside에 대한 내성을 유발하는 16SrRNA methylase 유전자인 armA는 A병원에서 분리한 38균주 중34균주(89.5%)에서, B병원에서 분리한 47균주 중 40균주(85.1%)에서 확인되었고, aminoglycoside modifying emzyme 유전자는 A병원 유래 38 균주 중 33 균주(70.2%)에서, B병원 유래 47균주 중44 균주(93.6%)에서 aac(3)-IIa/ant(2 ````)-Ia/aac(6 ``)-Ib가 확인됨에 따라 천안지역에서 분리되는 대부분의 다제 내성 A. baumannii균주는 acethyltransferase와 adenyltransferase를 동시에 발현하는 것을 알 수 있었다. 본 실험 결과는 충청남도 천안시에서 분리된 MDR A. baumannii를 대상으로 한 보고서로서, 항생제 내성유형과 내성 유전자의 분포를 확인하여 MDR A. baumannii 균주에의한 감염증의 치료 지침과 내성세균 확산 방지를 위해 필요한 기초 자료로 활용할 수 있을 것으로 생각된다. Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) is prevalent in hospital environments and is an important opportunistic pathogen of nosocomial infection. It is known that this pathogen cause herd infection in hospitals, and the mortality rate is remarkably higher for patients infected with this pathogen and already have other underlying diseases. Herein, we investigated the antibiotic resistance rate and the type of resistance genes in 85 isolates of multi-drug resistant A. baumannii from the samples commissioned to laboratory medicine in two university hospitals.in hospital A and hospital B.located in Cheonan and Chungcheong provinces, respectively, in Korea. As a result, bla<sub>OXA-23-like</sub>-like and bla<sub>OXA-51-like</sub>-like were detected in 82 stains (96.5%). These 82 strains of bla<sub>OXA-23-like</sub> producing A. baumannii were confirmed with the ISAba1 gene found at the top of the bla<sub>OXA-23-like</sub> genes by PCR, inducing the resistance against carbapenemase. The armA, AME gene that induces the resistance against aminoglycoside was detected in 34 strains out of 38 strains from Hospital A (89.5%), and in 40 strains out of 47 strains from Hospital B (85.1%), while AMEs were found in 33 strains out of 38 strains from Hospital A (70.2%) and in 44 strains out of 47 strains in Hospital B (93.6%). Therefore, it was found that most multi-drug resistant A. baumannii from the Cheonan area expressed both acethyltransferase and adenyltransferase. This study investigated the multi-drug resistant A. baumannii isolated from Cheonan and Chungcheong provinces in Korea, and it is thought that the results of the study can be utilized as the basic information to cure multi-drug resistant A. baumannii infections and to prevent the spread of drug resistance.