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This paper presents a multi-level optimization strategy to obtain optimum operating conditions (four flow-rates and cycle time) of nonlinear simulated moving bed chromatography. The multi-level optimization procedure(MLOP) approaches systematically from initialization to optimization with two objective functions (productivity anddesorbent consumption), employing the standing wave analysis, the true moving bed (TMB) model and the simulatedmoving bed (SMB) model. The procedure is constructed on a non-worse solution property advancing level by leveland its solution does not mean a global optimum. That is, the lower desorbent consumption under the higher pro-ductivity is successively obtained on the basis of the SMB model, as the two SMB-model optimizations are repeatedby using a standard SQP (sucessive quadratic programing) algorithm. This approach takes advantage of the TMBmodel as well as surmounts shortcomings of the TMB model in the general case of any nonlinear adsorption isothermusing the SMB model. The MLOP is evaluated on two nonlinear SMB cases characterized by i) quasi-linear/non-equilibrium and ii) nonlinear/nonequilibrium model. For the two cases, the MLOP yields a satisfactory solution forhigh productivity and low desorbent consumption within required purities.
A automated noncontact weight system for pigs consisted of a CCD-type video camera and 10 photo sensors connected to a computer. In the experiment 20 pigs(Large Yorkshire $\times$ Landrace breed) weighing from 95kg to 115kg were used. Pig's original image data was transformed to a binary image an image excluding head and tail portion from the whole binary image and the area of pig was calculated. Then pig's volume was calculated by multiplying the area by the body hight measured with photo sensors. The correlation equation between the above volume(x) and pig's weight was y=0.0007 x -9.2152($R^2$=0.9965) Performance of a automated noncontact weighing system for pigs was tested with this equation. The results showed $\pm$0.65kg average error and 1.63kg maximum error. It was concluded that performance of a automated noncontact weighing system is excellent.