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1. 고려인 청소년들은 전문직이나 고위관리직에서 일하기를 희망했다. 그러나 중앙아시아, 특히 경제상태가 좋지 않은 우즈베키스탄의 경우 전공과 무관하게 한국기업에서 일하고 한국 관련 일을 하고자 한국어 공부에 적극적이었다. 종교는 개신교의 비중이 높았는데, 이는 한국과 미국에서 파송된 한인선교사들의 활발한 선교활동의 결과라고 생각된다. 2. 고려인 청소년들은 한인 부모와 동거하는 비율이 높고 가족의 수입도 평균 이상으로 인식했다. 부모의 직업도 전문직과 고위직이 많았으나 자영업과 판매업도 상대적으로 높게 나타났다. 체제이행 및 중앙아시아 국가의 독립에 따라 많은 고려인 전문직 종사자들이 소규모 비즈니스로 직업을 바꾼 결과가 반영되었을 것이다. 3. 고려인 청소년 부모들은 한국사회에 호의적이며 자녀들의 한국어 교육에 열성이고 한민족끼리 결혼하기를 희망하고 한국음식을 즐겨 먹고 있으나 자녀들과 한국어로 대화하는 것은 극히 소수의 비율에 그쳤다. 소비에트 시민으로 살아온 부모세대들은 이미 한국어 구사능력을 상실했기 때문이다. 4. 고려인 청소년들에게 한국은 이미 역동적이며 친밀한 나라가 되었다. 한국인에 대한 평가도 높게 나왔다. 그들은 한국어를 유용한 언어로 생각하고 한국방문 및 연수에도 적극적이다. 한국영화와 드라마, 즉 한류(한국 대중문화) 열풍이 불고 있음도 확인되었다. 그러나 이들 청소년들의 한국 뉴스에 대한 관심도는 높지 않았다. 5. 고려인 청소년들은 부모님과 생활하며 한민족 고유의 명절과 전통인 설, 한식, 단오, 돌, 환갑 등을 아직까지는 잘 기념하고 있다. 또한 한국어 구사능력을 상실한 그들 부모세대와 달리 외국어로서 한국어를 적극적으로 배우고 있음이 한국어 듣기, 말하기, 읽고 쓰기 능력에 대한 설문에서 확인되었다. 6. 고려인 청소년들은 한민족의 일원으로서 자긍심을 느끼고 있고 한민족의 역사, 전통, 관습 등에 대해 알려고 노력하고 있다. 높아진 한국의 국제적 위상이 영향을 미친 것으로 파악된다. 그러나 고려인단체에 대한 관심과 참여도가 저조한 것은 일부 지역을 제외하고 고려인협회의 분열상과 자체 역량 부족이 반영된 것으로 추정된다. 7. 고려인 청소년들은 한국과의 관계형성 및 교류를 지속적으로 원하고 있으며, 한국 청소년들과의 인터넷사이트를 통한 교류에 적극적이다. 또한 그들은 한국정부의 유학 및 취업지원에 높은 관심을 보였으나 정보의 공유가 충분하지 못하다고 지적했다. 8. 러시아 이주와 관련한 고려인 청소년들은 자신들의 뿌리와 한민족의 최대 비극인 1937년 강제이주의 역사, 또한 그들의 선조들이 정착한 중앙아시아의 콜호즈 또한 잘 모르고 있는 것으로 나타났다. 9. 고려인 청소년들은 자신들의 미래와 관련, 학업을 통한 신분상승과 성공을 바라고 있는 것으로 나타났다. 그리고 자신들의 미래에 대해서는 많은 기대를 하고 있고 전반적으로 낙관적으로 바라보고 있는 것으로 나타났다. 1. Ethnic Korean young people in CIS hope to work in professions or high-ranking management positions. However, in Central Asia, especially the ethnic Korean young people of Uzbekistan are aggressive in studying the Korean language to work in Korean companies and to get a job related to Korea without any connection to their majors. Protestantism is given more weight on religion. It is the result of vigorous missionary works of Korean missionaries dispatched from Korea and the United States. 2. In the case of Ethnic Korean young people in CIS, the rate of living together with their parents is high and they recognize that family's income is above average. A lot of parents work in professions or high-ranking management positions, and the rate of running their own businesses and sales business is relatively high. This status reflects that many ethnic Korean workers in professions changed their jobs into small businesses according to the shift to an open economic system and the independence of Central Asia. 3. Ethnic Korean young people's parents have favorable opinion about Korean society, passion for children's education, hope for marriage among Koreans, and favor with Korean food. However, the rate of talking with their children in Korean is low because parents who have lived as the Soviet citizens have no proficiency in Korean any more. 4. To ethnic Korean young people, Korea is already considered as an active and familiar country, and Koreans are in high opinion. They think the Korean language is very useful. In this reason they are aggressive in visiting Korea and studying in Korea. The Korean Wave from Korean movies and dramas is confirmed, while they give a little attention to Korean news. 5. So far, living with their parents, ethnic Korean young people are celebrating Korean traditional holidays and anniversaries such as Seol(New Year's Day), Hansik(mow the grass and offer sacrificial food at the ancestral tombs), Dano(festival on May 5th), Chuseok(harvest festival), Dol(first birthday), and Hwangab(60th birthday). Unlike their parents who have no proficiency in Korean, they learn Korean eagerly as a foreign language. It is checked by the questionnaire asking about listening, speaking, reading, and writing proficiency in Korean language. 6. Ethnic Korean young people are proud of being members of the Korean race, and try to know about Korean history, traditions, and customs. It has resulted from the fast growing international presence of Korea. However, the poor interest and participation in ethnic Korean organizations are presumed because of the disruption of organizations and the lack of its ability except a few regions. 7. Ethnic Korean young people want continuous interchanges and relations with Korea, and they are aggressive in interacting with Korean young people via internet sites. Also, they show great concerns about the support of Korean government in studying and getting a job in Korea, indicating the lack of sharing information. 8. Ethnic Korean young people are not quite sure of their roots, the history of 1937 Diaspora which is the worst Korean tragedy, and kolkhoz in Central Asia where their ancestors settled. 9. Relating to their future, ethnic Korean young people want to succeed and enhance their social standing through studying. They generally expect a lot and take an optimistic view about their future.
본 논문은 러시아 모스크바 지역의 한국학 연구에 관한 현황을 다루고 있다. 주지하다시피, 19세기 이래로 한국과 러시아의 관계는 여러 차례 변화된 모습을 보이고 있다. 이와 연관지어 본 논문의 2장에서는 기관을 중심으로 다루고 있는데, 인문사회과학 학술정보 연구소 (INION), <동방학 연구소>에서의 한국학 연구와 관련된 성과들을 소개하고 있다. 아울러 <삼일문화원>, <전러시아 고려인 협회>,<고려인 민족문화자치회>의 연구 현황도 조사하였다. 이를 위해, 5개 기관의 9명의 인터뷰를 통한 실증적 연구 조사를 실시하였다. 3장에서는 한국학 연구의 각 영역에 관한 연구를 다루고 있다. 여기서는 모스크바 대학 산하, 한국학 센터의 ‘러시아의 한국학’을 소개하였다. 특히 정치, 경제, 한국전쟁, 역사, 문화, 언어, 문학 등의 분야별 현황을 소개하였다. 그리고 <극동연구소>의 현황도 소개하였는데, 극동연구소가 한국학과 관련된 인문, 사회 등 분야의 연구에 있어서 경향을 보여주고 있기 때문이다. 4장에서는 구 소련 지역에서의 고려인에 관한 연구의 성격과 특징을 다루고 있다. 고려인 연구는 다양한 영역에서 많은 연구가 행해지고 있는데, 특히 고려인 관련 전기류의 활발한 출판이 이루어지고 있음을 소개하였다. 그러나 결론적으로 추가하면, 비록 한국학 연구가 다방면에서 이루어지고 있지만, 모스크바의 한국학 연구 장려를 위해서는 한국 정부나 민간 학술 기관, 도서관 등의 지원, 협력이 필요하다. Korean Studies in Russia has been changed several times since the official relation between Korea and Russia in the late nineteenth century. In chapter 2, we introduced the materials on Korean studies in <Institute of scientific documentation for social science studies> and <Institute of Oriental Studies>, which are the two greatest institutions having a lot of materials on Korean studies. In addition, we included the monographs, which were recently published by <Cultural center samil>, <Korean association in Russia> and <Federal national-cultural autonomy>. Besides analyzing the materials, we interviewed 9 persons of the above 5 institutions for this research. In chapter 3, we researched the character and peculiarities of the Korean Studies in the field of politics & economics, Korean war, history & culture, and language & literature. For this aim, we relatively in detail introduced the recent edition of “The Korean Studies in Russia” published by the Korean Center of the Moscow State University. And we introduced the Conference proceedings on Korean Studies of <Institute of Far eastern Studies>. Because we thought that they included articles showing the research tendency of the humanities and social sciences of the Korean Studies. Our research shows as follows: the increase of the studies on the recent politics, economy, and history, and the few of the studies on the culture and traditional society. In chapter 4, we analyzed the monographs on the Koryosaram, Korean Diaspora in CIS. The Koryosaram research shows us a lot of diverse fields more and more. But among them the publication of autobiography becomes a distinct character. In conclusion, we think that the supports of the Korean government, civil research institutes and libraries are requisite for the encouragement of the Korean Studies in Moscow.
Since China adopted its reform and open-door policy in earnest in the 1980’s and in particular, since it launched its diplomatic relations with Korea in 1992, its Chinese-Korean community has faced a dilemma between development and dissolutions Many Chinese-Koreans left their rural villages to move to Beijing and the Southeastern littoral zones With the “Korean dream” spreading in their community, about 300,000 Chinese-Koreans currently live in Koreas With those living in Japan (80,000), Russia (50,000) and those in the United States, Europe, Southeast Asia, the Middle East and Australia combined, over 500,000 Chinese-Koreans live overseass Today, Chinese-Koreans are considered a global people living and working all over the world. In contrast, their Chinese rural area has increasingly faced significant challenges such as the dissolution of their village community, their “cultural territory” they have developed generation after generation, the shutdown of local schools due to the lack of school-age children and the dramatic decrease of fertile women. The objective of this paper is to suggest the cultural industry as a solution for the development of Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture which is facing a crisis in the context of the dramatic transition from rural society→industrial society→information society→green culture economy society in only 20 years. In Chapter 2, the Chinese-Korean community’s cultural industry is discussed based on the paper related to the cultural industry from the “Academic Symposiums and Workshops” which have been led by the Korean Cultural Institute at Minzu University of China since 1994. What is noticeable was that the Chinese-Korean community’s scholars, political leaders, scientists and distinguished business leaders have participated in these meetings to discuss how to overcome the challenges faced by their community and how to ensure sustainable development. Chapter 3, “The Development Strategy and the Cultural Industry for Glocal Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture,” suggests two discussion subjects for the Yanbian Chinese-Korean community (encompassing its government, academia and business milieu): first, training professionals specializing in the performance industry and cultural content and second, collecting and digitizing cultural resources as well as creating an electrical culture map. Yanbian, located in the outskirts of Northeastern China, is sharing its borders with North Korea and Russia. Ships regularly go from there to Korea and Japan via Russian and North Korean ports. In short, Yanbian is located at the center of the so-called “Northeast Asia’s golden triangle.” As the Chinese government started its Tuman River Development Project in earnest in 2009 and as the historical and cultural resources of Chinese-Korean and Manchurian people and ecocultural tourism focused on the beautiful sceneries of Baekdu Mountain and Tuman River are considered important, Yanbian is drawing attention in this era of Northeast Asia. It is thus time for the government of Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture, Yanbian University, local artists, business leaders and the local media including the region’s publishing company, newspaper and television to cooperate with each other to preserve the beautiful ecological environment of Baekdu Mountain and Tuman River and to use Chinese-Korean people’s proud historical and cultural resources as well as rich folk cultural heritage to transform this region into “Glocal Yanbian,” the center of tourism and culture in Northeast Asia. In this context, Yanbian needs to fully utilize its global Korean network composed of Chinese-Koreans living in China, Koreans in Korea and Korean people living in the entire world, in order to train professionals specializing in cultural contents and to collect and make use of cultural resources.
Today, the vast majority of Korean Chinese Community is residing in the city, Because of this, space, and programs that allow Korean Chinese, ``the city people``, to meet together to identify themselves as the same ethnic group and to share their traditional arts and culture have become important. Therefore, to develop human resources that can express their traditional arts and culture which cannot be missed in every events and to create new traditional culture are the facing challenges of Korean Chinese Community. However, since it is the traditional arts and culture of the Korean people, receiving the cooperation from South Korea is not only necessary but also significant. The cooperation between Gwangju Cultural Foundation with Gwangju Metropolitan Office of Education and Northeast Korean Chinese Community can be considered as a bing step forward encompassing Korean Chinese Community`s school and Korean Chinese Community`s Center. Korean society needs to develop and institutionalize the exchanges and training programs more systemic and continuous. It is for the Korean Chinese Community`s school and Korean Chinese Community`s Center which are in charge of education of ethnic Korean arts and culture. Moreover, the Korean Chinese Community`s Center which need to seek the cultural industry scheme of cultural projects requires cooperation with Korean society.
This article purports to present a set of new strategic considerations for the development of Korean studies in CIS area, based on the careful study of the history and the current situation of Korean studies in this area. As the second chapter of this article explicates, Korean studies in Imperial and Soviet Russia can be divided into four respective periods: 1) before the Bolshevik revolution, 2) after the Bolshevik revolution until the 1950's, 3) 1960's and 1970's, 4) after 1980's until now. And each period produced a specific trend of Korean studies, reflecting the political and ideological situation of the given times. The first period was characterized by its primary efforts on accumulating the basic information about Korea. During the second period Korean studies in Soviet Russia was placed under the strong influence of ideological bias. However, namely this period witnessed the institutionalization of Korean studies, especially, in the fields of language and literature. The third period is most interesting, since Korean studies experienced a time of prosperity in various fields. The last, fourth period is closely connected with the establishment of diplomatic relations between Republic of Korea and Soviet Union in 1990. The establishment of official relations between South Korea and Russia triggered among Russians great interest on Korean studies as a whole. And Korean language is now being taught at many educational institutions throughout the country. And thanks to the recent translations and monographs in Russian. Russian readers are now able to get familiar with, at least, major aspects of Korean history, literature, politics and economy. In spite of this recent positive development of Korean studies in CIS area, we are now faced with some new problems as well. It is quite encouraging that geographic map of Korean studies in CIS is expanding rapidly, reaching from major European cities to remote provincial centers. However, a close look at its current situation indicates that in fact Korean studies in CIS area, once recognized as one of the best examples abroad, is in desperate situation because of following problems: 1) the retirement of well qualified specialists and the lack of capable young teaching staff who can replace the old generation, 2) the gradual decrease of students studying Korean, with the exception of Far East and Central Asia, due to the difficulty of finding appropriate job with the knowledge of Korean language, 3) the absence of well organized curriculum for Korean studies and the urgent need in necessary textbooks and secondary materials, 4) the inappropriate procedures for selecting Korean teaching staff working abroad. In the light of above mentioned problems. we can make some suggestions, which might be useful in formulating the new strategy for the development of Korean studies in CIS area. First, in order to maximize the efficiency of given material resources, it is necessary to divide educational institutions(which currently offer Korean studies program) into two categories: 1) an educational and research center with a differentiated field of concentration, 2) a strategic educational center for Korean immigrants, living compactly in a specific region. Second, we need to provide talented future scholars with corresponding financial support in order that they can devote themselves only to studies on Korea. The success of this program entirely depends on the objective procedures for defining and selecting the well-promising candidates. Third, new textbooks, adapted for the local needs, are essential for effective teaching. At the same time at the so-called educational and research centers we try to build a solid library, which are furnished with basic references and data base. Fourth, we need to pay close attention to who might be a best Korean candidate to teach abroad. A serious specialist in Korean linguistics without the minimum knowledge of Russian
This paper examines the formation and change of ethnic Korean Society in Southern Ukraine. In Ukraine ethnic Korean Society was started by immigrants after 1960s. Most of them moved from central asia motivated by getting good education. marriage and finding job to Kiev and other industrialized cities or to Crimea. In the cultural aspect Korean Society in Ukraine is characterized by its efforts on assimilating to slavic culture. especially. in the field of language. However. great interest on Korea has been witnessed among Koreans in Southern Ukraine from 1990s. It is closely connected not only with establishment of diplomatic relations between two countries. but also with activity of Korean NGOs in Ukraine. In the light of the geographical and technical situations of local ethnic Korean Associations. we can make two suggestions for organizing 'Hanmi niok Network' in Southern Ukraine. First , It is necessary to support local ethnic Korean Associations to be center of cul tural activities for revival national pride. Second, Korean NGOs need to be local center of 'Hanminiok Network' providing Ukraine-koreans opportunity to meet with computer network.
국내의 도시/지역을 대상으로 한 지역학 연구가 본격화 된 것은 1993년 서울학연구소의 설립 이후이다. 그러나 도시의 특성을 반영하는 한편 지역의 정체성 확보라는 차원에서 지역의 대학생들에게 지역의 명칭을 딴 교양과목이 개설된 것은 2009년 천안학이 처음이다. 이후 국내의 지역학 연구는 새로운 전환점을 맞이하게 되었다. 기존의 지역학들이 연구에 초점을 두었다면, 2009년 처음 대학의 교양과목으로 개설된 ‘천안학’은 주로 지역의 커뮤니티 주체와 소통이란 측면을 더 중요시한 특징이 있다. 2010년부터 시작해온 한국외대의 용인학 강의도 연구로서의 용인학보다 소통으로서의 용인학에 역점을 두었다. 먼저, 이 글은 용인학 주관교수인 제1저자가 ‘용인학’ 강의에서 스토리텔링-용인사회문화구술총서 간행과 용인문화원 스토리텔링 공모전 주관-을 통해 지역사회와 소통해온 바를 소개하고자 했다. 이어서 ‘디지털 인문학’의 중요성을 고려, 한국외대의 2014년 겨울계절학기 <문화테크놀로지개론> 팀티칭 강의에 도우미로 참여한 한국학중앙연구원 인문정보학 박사과정 학생(제2 저자)이 수강생들의 『용인신문』 기사 활용을 통한 ‘용인중앙시장 지식맵(Knowledge Map) 구축’을 지도한 바를 적었다. ‘디지털인문학’이 학문적인 수준을 제고시킴과 동시에 ‘스토리텔링의 자원화’를 제공함으로써 그 연구 성과를 일반대중이 쉽게 활용하게 해줄 수 있다고 생각한 것이다. Korea’s regional studies that focus on cities and regions began in 1993 upon establishment of the Institute of Seoul Studies in the University of Seoul. But it was in 2009 when “Study of Cheonan”, an elective class that used the name of a region as a course title was opened. It was the first undergraduate course that reflected characteristic of the city and secured its regional identity within its title. That was the turning point in regional studies in Korea. If previous studies in regional studies focused on research, ‘Study of Cheonan” focused more on regional community itself and communication aspects. The ‘Study of Yongin,’ a course that started in 2010 in Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, also stresses on communication aspects rather than research. In this study, the main instructor of the “Study of Yongin” course who is also the first author of the paper explains about the ways in which Yongin has been communicating with the local community by discussing the publication of Collection of Oral Statements: Storytelling-Yongin Community Culture, and Yongin Cultural Center’s Storytelling contests. Then, the second author, who was the teaching assistant of Cultural Technology course, discusses about the ways in which undergraduates used Yongin Newspaper articles to construct Knowledge map of Yongin Central Market (the 2nd author is a Ph.D student in Cultural Informatics at The Academy of Korean Studies). ‘Digital Humanities’ boasts academic standards and by providing ‘storytelling as resources,’ the result of researches will become easier for the general public to utilize.
This paper aims to research the social roles of Russian Orthodox Church (ROC) from 1988. the time of change in religious policy under Mikhail Gorvachev to 1998. From this year onwards, believers began to realize that they could engage in previously forbidden activities such as charitable and welfare work, running Sunday schools, painting christian literature. and so on. It also demonstrates how these areas of activities were influenced by the social changes. The new 'Law of Freedom of conscience' adopted in 1990 was to apply equally to all religions. but from its inception the Russian Orthodox Church was well to the fore. Paper begins with the review of ROC's pastoral activities, and shows how they are related to revival of the Church. Especially ROC as the largest and most prominent religious organization in Russia had already begun to seize advantage of new opportunities. Its demands for massive restoration of churches were illustrated as a request for the spiritual and cultural revival of Russia. And this kind of demands was frequently developed to insist on the full return of the land and monastery to the Church. The return of churches in ruins and requiring restoration gave ROC chance to call for state assistance for sharing monuments of religious culture with believers and granting the Church on a legal basis the status of educational or charitable centers. The second stage of the social activities of ROC commenced with the social and moral crises of society. Believers were called upon to help with problems of tragic disasters. like the Chernovil' explosion of 1986 and the Armenian earthquake of 1989. Recently. regarding its charitable activities as useful opportunity to introduce religious teaching to unbelievers in difficulties. ROC has interest in enlargement of its share in social activities. Perhaps education is the biggest challenge of all areas of the ROC's work. It requires vast human as well as financial resources. In addition to expanding academies and universities for higher theological education. a number of Orthodox schools for general education and Sunday schools for parishioners began to open in 1990s. In the spite of the general extension of its socially useful activities the ROC has put emphasis on spiritual rebirth of believers. which causes an argument about appreciation of its social role. The restrictions enforced on individual priests and parishes are no longer those of the communist regime but come from with the church itself.
2003년은 미주한인이민 100주년인 뜻 깊은 해였으며. 첫 정착지인 하와이와 한인들의 집중 거주지인 서부 지역(LA, 샌프란시스코, 시애틀)과 동부 지역(뉴옥, 볼티모어-워싱턴 DC), 그리고 중서부의 시카고와 동남부의 애틀란타 등 대도시에서 다채로운 행사가 개최되었다. 코리언 아메리칸은 미국 내 다른 소수계 인종과 달리 미국의 전 지역에 고루 흩어져 살고 있다. 따라서 비록 한인 인구가 1만이 되지 않는다 할지라도 도시 인구 100만 내외의 주도(Capital)와 주요 주립대학이 소재한 대학도시 등의 한인 커뮤니티 연구도 활성화되어야 한다. 인구 120만의 인디애나폴리스는 뉴욕이나 LA와 같이 소수계 인종이 다수를 차지하는 도시와는 달리 백인이 압도적인 다수를 차지하는 전형적인 미국도시이다. 따라서 한인의 수가 상대적으로 적은 탓에 교민을 상대로 한 별도의 신문 등이 부재한 인디애나폴리스와 같은 미국도시에 살고 있는 한인커뮤니티에 대한 연구, 특히 커뮤니티의 ‘롤 모델(Role Model)’이 될 만한 원로에 대한 연구가 필요한 시점이다. 2003년 5월부터 7월까지 필자는 인디애나폴리스 지역의 한인 커뮤니티를 관찰하면서 40여년 내외로 거주한 올드 타이머 가운데 백한원-장진옥 두 분은 인디애나폴리스, 나아가 인디애나 한인 커뮤니티의 롤 모델이 되기에 충분한 분임을 확인했다. 인디애나폴리스의 한인교회, 한글학교, 한인회(The Korean Society of Indiana)의 설립과 초기 운영 모두 이들 부부가 그 중심에 있었으며, 이들 부부가 각기 다민족 미국사회에서 한국문화를 알리고 또 미군과 결혼한 한국부인들의 인권옹호 등에 앞장서왔기 때문이다. 2003 was the year of great significance celebrating the 100th anniversary of Korean immigration to the United States. Various events were held in large cities; Hawaii the first settlement, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle of the West, New York, Baltimore, Washington, D.C. of the East, Chicago of the Midwest, and Atlanta of the Southeast where are the concentrated residential areas of the Korean-Americans. Unlike the other minority races, the Korean-Americans live throughout the whole country. Therefore the research has to revitalize on the Korean Community of the cities which have 1 million or so as a states capital or a university city including states university, even though Korean-American population of the city is less than ten thousand. Indianapolis with a population of 1.2 million, unlike New York or Los Angeles made up by the minority races who have a majority of the city, is a typical American city made up by Caucasian who have a majority. For this reason, it's the right time to research on Korean communities which are in American cities like Indianapolis which has no any kind of newspaper for the Korean-Americans because of small population, and especially on old timers who have the quality to be a Role Model of community. From May to July, 2003, observing Korean community in Indianapolis, this researcher looked up a couple Mr. & Mrs. Paik Han Won and Chinok Chang among old timers who had lived there 40-old years and checked up they are qualified enough to be Role Models. The couple founded and managed Korean church, Korean language school, and Korean society of Indianapolis. In addition, each of them introduced Korean culture to the American multiracial society and took the lead in protection of human rights of Korean wiv! es married American Forces.