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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to present our thoughts on the medical student evaluation of the courses via online at Konkuk University School of Medicine (KUSM) and to prompt us to improve the course evaluation system. Methods: Electronic questionnaire for computer-aided course evaluation via online was completed by 93 medical students who attended 32 block lectures at KUSM in 2007. The questionnaire consisted of 21 evaluation items. Frequency analysis of response on the evaluation items was conducted to find out the key features. Results: Evaluation forms for 32 lectures were received from the attendees via online. An average response rate was 63.8%. Among 17 Likert-scaled items, more negative response was observed in class quantity, studying method guidance, lecture note, teaching methods, and relevance of final examination. Conclusion: The current course evaluation at KUSM includes more questions that request students to state the overall quality of course modules than the detailed quality or skill of each lecturer. As the objective of the course evaluation is to promote students' learning and to give a feedback to the lecturer, the current consideration on the course evaluation prompted us to reorganize the design of the questionnaire according to the objective.
The study aimed to verify the prognostic utility, therapeutic application and clinical benefits of tumor substaging and HER2 status in papillary non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Select NMIBC transurethral resection specimens from 141 patients were used to construct tissue microarrays for assessing the substaging, HER2 protein expression by immunohistochemistry (HER2-IHC) and gene amplification by dual-color silver in situ hybridization (HER2-SISH). Substages were identified by the differing depth of tumor invasion (pTa / pT1a / pT1b / pT1c). HER2 protein expression was semiquantitatively analyzed and grouped into negative (score 0, 1+) and positive (score 2+, 3+). Other clinicopathological variables were also investigated. For NMIBC, HER2-IHC and HER2-SISH showed positive results in 6/141 (4.3%) and 4/141 (2.8%) respectively, which correlated well with tumor substaging. In multivariate analysis, substaging, HER2-IHC, and HER2- SISH were found to be independent predictors of progression-free survival (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P = 0.031). HER2-IHC was the sole independent predictor of recurrent free survival in NMIBC (P = 0.017). It is suggested that tumor substaging and HER2 status are independent predictive markers for tumor progression or recurrence, and thus could be included in diagnostic and therapeutic management for NMIBC.
Purpose: Replication error (RER) is an important mechanism in the gastric carcinogenesis and known to contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple gastric carcinomas (GCs). A proportion of sporadic GCs are RER-positive and RER-positive GCs have been reported to have distinct clinicopathological features. The purpose of the present study included whether there are characteristic clinicopathological features of RER-positive GCs and whether there is a difference of RER frequency between single and multiple GC in age-matched patients. Material and Methods: We analyzed 96 cases of single GC and 19 cases of multiple GC for the RER status using 7 microsatellite loci to assess their clinicopathological features. Result: Ten cases (10%) of 96 single GCs and five cases (26.3%) of 19 multiple GCs were RER-positive. However, comparison of RER frequency between single and multiple GCs in patients older than 60 years revealed no significant difference. Jn single GCs, RER-positive tumors showed a proclivity toward older age, antral location, and elevated gross type (Borrmann 2 or EGC IIa or I). Multiple GCs with RER showed a female-sex preponderance. Clinicopathological features of RER-positive tumors were similar in both single and multiple GCs. Conclusion: The present study revealed that RER-positive tumors had distinct clinico- pathological features and there was no significant difference of RER frequency between single and multiple GC in elderly patients. Our data suggests that RER contributes to the pathogenesis of GC, either single or multiple, in aged patients.