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The purpose of this experiments were to evaluate the effect of muscle relaxants on the intraocular pressure during general anesthesia for intraocular surgery. Forty patients in American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical status Ⅰ and Ⅱ aged from 19 to 60 years were studied during anesthesia for elective surgery and gave history of eye disease. All were premedicated with 50㎎ of meperidine and 0.5㎎ of atropine. Before induction intraocular pressure was measured and defined control value. Anesthesia were induced with 2.5% thiopental sodium and succinylcholine chloride and intraocular pressure was measured after endotracheal intubation. Anesthesia were maintained by morphine, haloperidol, nitrous oxide, and oxygen. Tubocurarine and pancuronium were administered on the return of spontaneous respiration. following succinylcholine chloride. Subsequent measurement were 5, 10, 20 minutes after tubocurarine and pancuronium administration respectively. The results were as follows; 1. Succinylcholine chloride caused a significant rise in intraocular pressure. 2. Pancuronium caused a significant decrease in intraocular pressure. 3. Tubocurarine caused a significant decrease in intraocular pressure.
Plasma cholinesterase has been called pseudocholinesterase, because it hydrolyzes many esters, as well as acetylcholine. Pseudocholinesterase, which is mainly distributed in the serum, is synthesized in parallel with serum albumin by the liver and is reduced by liver injury or liver disease. Many observations have been suggested that measurement of pseudocholinesterase may be of value in following the course of liver disease or estimation of liver function. The purposes of this study were to investigate the normal plasma cholinesterase activity and to evaluate it as a test of liver function. Eighty patients without abnormal liver function in physical status I(adopted by American, Society of Anesthesiologists) and thirty two cancer patients, aged from 20 to 39 years were studied. Venous blood was collected before induction, placed in haparinized tubes, centrifuged and the plasma stored at 4℃ until assayed. The plasma cholinesterase value was measured by Wako kit and JASCO UVIDEC 77 clinical spectrophotometer. The results are follows; 1. In normal subjects, mean value of plasma cholinesterase was 1271.3±201.6 IU/l and normal range was 866±1677 IU/l. 2. In cancer patients, mean value of plasma cholinesterase was 948.8±123.9 IU/l. 3. The result of measuring correlation coefficient of plasma cholinesterase and liver function, tests revealed that albumin had the most significant correlation. 4. The result of comparison of liver function tests of cancer patients against normal persons showed that plasma cholinesterase decreased and cholesterol and alkaline phosphatase increased.
In this study, effects of microground coffee on the quality characteristics and acceptability of instant coffee with probiotics were investigated. A central composite design with two factors (roasting degree and dose of microground coffee) was used and ranges of roasting degree and dose were 30~50 (L value) and 5~10% respectively. Aroma preference, sweetness intensity, bitterness intensity, acidity intensity, body intensity and overall acceptability were evaluated as sensory characteristics and quadratic regression models of all the properties were significant. Especially in aroma preference and overall acceptability, the higher roasting degree and dose of microground coffee, the more aroma preference and overall acceptability of the coffee increased. And this results accorded with the object of this study to increase aroma preference and overall acceptability by blending microground coffee with instant coffee. On the other hand, 129 of aroma compounds were detected in instant coffee with microground coffee but 2,5-dimethyl-pyrazine, ethyl-pyrazine and furfural were significant in quadratic regression models. The optimal conditions were predicted by response surface methodology and desirability function approach and the optimal conditions of roasting degree and dose of microground coffee were 30(L value), 8.4%(w/w) respectively to maximize 2 sensory characteristics (overall preference, aroma preference) and 3 aroma components (2,5-dimethyl-pyrazine, ethyl-pyrazine, furfural).
Background and Objectives The aim of this study was to define the clinical characteristics and treatment outcome of the salivary Warthin's tumor in order to work out a therapeutic strategy. Subjects and Method The medical records of 64 patients who underwent surgery and were pathologically diagnosed with Warthin's tumor at our department from January 1997 to December 2009 were reviewed retrospectively. Results There were 60 (94%) males and 4 (6%) females with an overall male-to-female ratio of 15 : 1. The average age was 59.8±9.2 years (range from 35 to 78). All tumors were found in the parotid gland. Of the 66 tumors, 31 (48%) occurred in the right side, 28 (44%) tumors occurred in left side, and 5 (8%) tumors occurred in bilaterally. A superficial parotidectomy was performed in 38 (59%) patients, lumpectomy in 25 (39%) patients and bilateral lumpectomy in one patient. There were 18 (28%) postoperative complications. The most common complication was transient facial palsy that occurred in 11 (17%) patients. Recurrence occurred in 2 (3%) patients, oneipsilaterally and the other contralaterally. All recurrences were found in patients who underwent superficial parotidectomy. Conclusion Warthin's tumor has a very low recurrence rate with a benign nature. The study shows that lumpectomy is an effective surgical treatment for Warthin's tumor with an advantage of reducing facial nerve palsy and recurrence rate.
Background and Objectives Neurogenic tumors in the head and neck are relatively rare and constitute around 0.5% of all head and neck tumors. Schwannoma, among neurogenic tumors, is a benign tumor originating from the spinal nerve root, peripheral nerve and all kinds of cranial nerves except the optic nerve and olfactory nerve. By presenting a series of head and neck schwannomas treated during a fifteen-year period, we aimed to analyze the clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of schwannomas retrospectively. Subjects and Method We retrospectively reviewed and analyzed clinical records of 34 patients with head and neck schwannomas who were treated surgically at the University Hospital from January, 1995 to January, 2010. Results We found 34 cases of schwannoma in the head and neck. Among the patients, 14 were males and 20 were females. The most common age group was the 60's while the most common site was the parapharyngeal space. The most common presenting symptom was palpable neck mass and the mean duration of symptoms was 41.6 months. The most common nerve of origin was the cervical plexus (29.4%). Preoperative diagnostic tools were FNA, CT and MRI. All cases were treated surgically and the most common postoperative complication was both transient and permanent voice changes. The mean follow-up period was 18.3 months and recurrence was not found during this period. Conclusion Thirty-four cases of schwannoma in the head and neck were presented with respect to their clinical features.
Background : Desflurane is a new inhaled anesthetic with the lowest blood/gas partition coefficient and enflurane is one of the major anesthetics in these days. But the effect of volatile anesthetics and the site of action on the blood vessel are still controversial. Since Furchgott(1980) discovered endothelium derived relaxing factor(EDRF) from endothelium, many investigators have studied about the relationship between the EDRF and the effect of the volatile anesthetics on blood vessels. In this study, we evaluated that the effect and the action site of enflurane and desflurane on isolated aortic rings of the rabbit. Methods : Each of obtained thoracic aorta from rabbits(1.5∼2.5 kg) was divided into 4∼6 mm rings, and a half of that were denuded. All of the aortic rings were preconstricted with phenylephrine 1.5 10-7 Mole in warm organ bath filled with modified Krebs' solution, and then LNAME(inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, 3 10-4Mole) was administered to one group of aortic rings. MB(inhibitor of solub guanylyl cyclase, 2 10-5Mole) was administered to another one group and neither of LNAME nor MB was administered to the other group. And then enflurane(1%, 2%, 3%, 4%) or desflurane(6%, 9%, 12%) was administered to all of aortic rings. The polygraph recorded the changes of tension of aortic ring which was transmitted through the force transducer. Results : It was proved that basal EDRF was released from endothelium by the fact that intact aortic rings were more constricted after LNAME or MB administration. The intact aortic rings were constricted in all concentration of enflurane and both intact and denuded rings were maintained from control tension in all concentrations of desflurane. Conclusion : It is concluded that enflurane in all concentrations has an endothelium-mediated vasoconstriction effect and desflurane in all concentrations has no effect on isolated aortic rings of rabbit. (Korean J Anesthesiol 1997; 33: 583∼590)
Background : The action of the volatile anesthetics on various organs in the body is not well known. Since Furchgott(1980) discovered endothelium derived relaxing factor(EDRF) from endothelium, many studies have been tried. Many investigators were studied about the relationship between the EDRF and the effect of the volatile anesthetics on blood vessels too. But the effect of volatile anesthetics and the site of action on the blood vessel were still controversial. In this study, we evaluated that the effect and the action site of halothane and isoflurane on isolated aortic rings of the rabbit. Methods : Each of obtained thoracic aorta from rabbits(1.5∼2.5 Kg) was divided into 3∼5 mm sized rings, and a half of that were denuded. All of the aortic rings were preconstricted with phenylephrine 1.5 10-7 Mole in warm organ bath filled with modified Krebs' solution, and then LNAME(inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, 3 10-4Mole) was administered to one group of aortic rings. MB(inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclas 2 10-5Mole) was administered to another one group and neither of LNAME nor MB was administered to the other group. And then isoflurane or halothane was administered(1∼4%) to all of aortic rings. The polygraph recorded the changes of tension of aortic ring which was transmitted through the force transducer. Results : It was proved that basal EDRF was released from endothelium by the fact that intact aortic rings were more constricted after LNAME or MB administration. The intact aortic rings were constricted in all concentration of isoflurane and both intact and denuded rings were relaxed in 4% concentration of halothane. Conclusion : It is concluded that isoflurane in all concentrations has an endothelium -mediated vasoconstriction and 4% halothane produced vascular relaxation directly independent of existence of the endothelium of vessel. (Korean J Anesthesiol 1997; 33: 6∼14)
Consecutive anesthesia records of transurethral resection. (TUR) on 97 patients have been reviewed. The patients' anesthetic management and complications were discussed. Operations in this series were classified as follows: 65 cases of TUR of the benign prostate hypertrophy(BPH), 8 cases of TUR of prostate ca, 24 cases of TUR of the bladder tumor. Of all the 97 cases of TUR, 62 cases had some systemic disease. Circulatory diseases, such as hypertension, abnormal EKG and ischemic heart disease were encountered most frequently, namely in 24 cases(26%). The patients who underwent TUR of the BPH had the highest mean age(70 years old). Spinal anesthesia was given 79.4%, and general anesthesia in 18. 6%. Complications did not occur during or after TUR. There was no death associated with anesthesia and operation in this study.
In line with the era of local universities, a total of 402 people, including companies, private businesses, individuals (founders), and companies listed in the 2021 campus innovation park, were surveyed for six days from 02/15/2021 to 02/21. According to the regression analysis, future-oriented (47%) factors influencing the establishment of campus innovation park consumer-centered methods (p<.05), the standardization factor β is future-oriented (β=.479), Environmental Analysis and Policy (β=.047), and it was confirmed that there was a greater future-oriented influence on innovative park consumers than environmental analysis and policy. This study is meaningful in identifying the needs of consumers and businesses related to the campus innovation park construction project of S University in the province and suggesting ways to establish an efficient innovation park. 본 연구는 지방대학 거점의 시대에 맞추어, 학교 주변 혁신파크 생태계 조성을 통해 지역경제 활성화와 일자리 창출 등 환경 기반 조성을 목적으로 2021년 02월 15일부터 02월 21일까지 6일간에 걸쳐 기업체, 개인사업자, 개인(창업예정자) 및 2021년 지방 S대 캠퍼스 혁신파크 입주의향서에 기재된 업체를 포함한 총 402명을 대상으로 고객 수요에 대한 현황을 조사하였다. 회귀분석 결과 캠퍼스 혁신파크 수요자 중심의 수립방안에 영향을 미치는 요인으로는 미래지향적(47%)으로 나타났고(p<.05), 표준화 계수 β값은 미래지향적(β=.479), 환경분석 및 정책(β=.047)으로 분석되었으며, 혁신파크 수요자 중심에는 환경분석 및 정책 보다 미래지향적이 더 큰 영향력이 미치는 것으로 확인되었다. 본 연구는 지방 S대학교 캠퍼스 혁신파크 조성사업과 관련된 수요자와 기업체 요구사항을 파악하여 효율적인 혁신파크 조성 수립방안을 제시하는데 연구의 의의가 있다.