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In this paper, we propose a communication framework (CM) that supports both client and server applications development on desktop and mobile platforms. Previous versions of CM and other related frameworks did not specify the platform on which the application runs, or they limited the platform only to the desktop environment. By extending the existing CM client to the Android application, the proposed CM has been improved to enable developers to use various high-level communication services in a consistent way regardless of the application platform. First, the application can place the CM configuration file in an arbitrary path and edit it through a new application programming interface (API) to solve the management problem of separate files in the Android platform. We also changed CM APIs such that CM internally makes the network-related functions called by a separate thread rather than the main thread that is forbidden from calling the network function in the Android platform.
In this paper, we propose a new Quality of Service(QoS) Level 3 mechanism of Message Queuing Telemetry Transport(MQTT). It ensures synchronous communication between a publisher and subscribers. In QoS3, a publisher can check message reception of subscribers, while traditional QoS Levels can only check reception between the publisher and the broker asynchronously. After sending a QoS3 message, the publisher waits until it receives a predetermined number of response messages. We evaluated the performance of QoS3 through delay and packet size measurements in various situations. QoS3 was slower than QoS2 because of synchronous communication. However, if interaction with lots of receivers is required, QoS3 was faster than QoS2. For the packet size, QoS3 was bigger than QoS2 because of the additional fields, but the difference was not significant. QoS3 can be effectively used in cases when the publisher needs to perform the following tasks after verifying message reception of subscribers.
In this paper, we propose a hybrid file synchronization framework based on rsync protocol and file transfer for clould storage services. When a client modifies a file, rsync uses delta encoding that transfers only the differences between two files of the client and server for file synchronization. On the other hand, the delta encoding requires additional processing cost in the process of determining the difference between the two files. The proposed framework selectively applies both the delta encoding and the file transfer to the file synchronization task. For a new file, the file transfer shows shorter synchronization delay than the delta encoding. For an appended file, the delta encoding shows shorter delay than the file transfer. For a modified file, the proposed hybrid synchronization method minimizes the delay time by selectively using the delta encoding and file transfer depending on the file size and modification ratio.
Electric-thermal-structural actuated compliant mechanisms are mechanisms onto which electric voltage drop is applied as input instead of force. This mechanism is based on thermal expansion of material while being heated. Compliant mechanisms are designed subjected to electric charge input using BESO(bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization) method. Reliability-based topology optimization (RBTO) is applied to the topology design of actuators. performance measure approach (PMA), which has probabilistic constraints that are formulated in terms of the reliability index, is adopted to evaluate the probabilistic constraints. In this study, BESO method is used to obtain optimal topology of compliant mechanisms from initial design domain. PMA approach is used to evaluate reliability index. The procedure has been tested in numerical applications and compared with the results obtained by other methods to validate these approaches.
In this paper, we propose a vocabulary coverage improvement method for embedded continuous speech recognition (CSR) using a part-of-speech (POS) tagged corpus. We investigate 152 POS tags defined in Lancaster-Oslo-Bergen (LOB) corpus and word-POS tag pairs. We derive a new vocabulary through word addition. Words paired with some POS tags have to be included in vocabularies with any size, but the vocabulary inclusion of words paired with other POS tags varies based on the target size of vocabulary. The 152 POS tags are categorized according to whether the word addition is dependent of the size of the vocabulary. Using expert knowledge, we classify POS tags first, and then apply different ways of word addition based on the POS tags paired with the words. The performance of the proposed method is measured in terms of coverage and is compared with those of vocabularies with the same size (5,000 words) derived from frequency lists. The coverage of the proposed method is measured as 95.18% for the test short message service (SMS) text corpus, while those of the conventional vocabularies cover only 93.19% and 91.82% of words appeared in the same SMS text corpus.
The objective of this work is to integrate reliability analysis into topology optimization problems. The reliability index determines design domain and uncertainty value. The elemental sensitivity numbers are calculated from finite element analysis and then converted to the nodal sensitivity numbers in the design domain. A mesh-independency filter using nodal variables is introduced to determine the addition of elements and eliminate unnecessary structural details below a certain length scale in the design. To further enhance the convergence of the optimization process, the accuracy of elemental sensitivity numbers is improved by its historical information. Application of the RBTO model gives a different topology relative to DTO. It is found that the RBTO model yields more reliable optimal topologies than those produced by DTO.
In this paper, we propose a common simulation model that can be reused for different performance evaluations of networked virtual environments. To this end, we analyzed the common features of NVEs, in which multiple regions compose a shared space, and where a user has his/her own interest area. Communication architecture can be client-server or peer-server models. In usual simulations, users move around the world while the number of users varies with the system. Our model provides various simulation parameters to customize the region configuration and user movement pattern. Furthermore, our model introduces a way to mimic a lot of users in a minimal experiment environment. The proposed model is integrated with our network framework, which supports various scalability approaches. We specifically applied our model to the interest management and load distribution schemes to evaluate communication overhead. With the proposed simulation model, a new simulation can be easily designed in a large-scale environment.